Climate Protests and Civil Disobedience

Climate Protests and Civil Disobedience

SUBTITLE'S INFO:

Language: English

Type: Robot

Number of phrases: 473

Number of words: 2457

Number of symbols: 12177

DOWNLOAD SUBTITLES:

DOWNLOAD AUDIO AND VIDEO:

SUBTITLES:

Subtitles generated by robot
00:05
over recent years climate protesters brought climate change to the forefront of public debate and consciousness bristol is one of many cities that has become a stage for this movement this is an emergency world leaders are behaving like children so it falls on us to be the adults in the room alongside the school strikers the disruptive protests of extinction rebellion have played a big part extinction rebellion have divided opinion as well as disrupting the normal
00:37
life of the city their protests often involve breaking the law unlawful protest is nothing new there are many examples in the ancient world perhaps most famously the story of jesus in the temple we can date the term civil disobedience to 1849 when henry david thoreau published an essay that sought to justify this form of protest over the last century or so there have been many examples of people disobeying the law to try to bring about change but why do people choose to protest in a
01:08
way that breaks laws and causes disruption it's a question best tackled by an interdisciplinary approach that considers the philosophical political and psychological perspectives [Applause] you are joining a long tradition of people who have struggled for a better world and we say welcome to you for extinction rebellion lawbreaking protest is mainly a means to get attention from media and public in order to push for more focus on climate change mass extinction and democratic reform
01:40
philosophers and political theorists have thought a lot about when and how it's okay to break the law as part of political protests the liberal philosopher john rawls did a lot of thinking about this question in relation to the u.s civil rights movement two of his points are essential to understand how civil disobedience is justified in the 21st century the first is that disobedience should be a last resort when all other means to bring about necessary and just change have been tested and failed it is not just that people have tried all kinds of campaigning that
02:10
haven't worked but that time is quite literally running out humanity or at least civilization is existentially threatened by the lack of action and we do not have much time to do something about it the second of rules's point is that civil disobedience must be carried out within an overall fidelity to law martin luther king famously wrote that he had the highest respect for the law fidelity to law means that you need to accept the punishments handed down by the state for your disobedience
02:40
you need to be open and conscientious as well as non-violent with the many arrests extinction rebellion certainly do not shy away from the punishment of the state a third of rose's criteria for civil disobedience seems less relevant he said the disobedience should not be done in economic or in self-interest but much of the critique of extinction rebellion has been that this largely white and middle-class movement are far from being the worst affected by climate change in britain or the world that indicates that we would perhaps be
03:10
more supportive of disruptive protests by those directly affected such as those affected by floods or droughts africa contributes the least to the emissions but suffers the most in form of diverse effects of climate change enough is enough to make up for that extinction rebellion go the extra mile to become legitimate voices they do so by displaying sacrifice not just accepting but actually welcoming and seeking arrest legitimacy is at the core of civil
03:41
disobedience it is about showing the public as a target audience how certain laws or practices are illegitimate if the state violently represses non-violent civil disobedience it loses legitimacy extinction rebellion understand this process as polarization try to earn my money like yes everyone else is i know he's doing this with normal people if i put my lorry here and left it i'd get shipped by the police you know i wouldn't get them walking around with me it's crazy crazy absolutely they know
04:12
that a part of the population will hate them but that they hope that a greater part of the population will listen to them and make addressing climate change more of a priority they want to force people to make a choice in that sense extinction rebellion have been successful the public is being swayed and are more concerned about climate change now than they were before the protests in policy terms parliament's declaration of climate emergency was a direct result of the april 2019 occupation of parts of central london and the accompanying media
04:44
attention today mr speaker this house must declare an environment and climate emergency we have no time to waste what we can learn from extinction rebellion's experience is that civil disobedience works it gets attention it forces people and the state to act and to take a position in relation to climate change it forces a choice between business as usual with catastrophic effects and radical action on the climate
05:14
emergency but the use of civil disobedience by climate activists may be taken further being about legitimacy civil disobedience is an ideal method of delegitimizing actors and processes that stand in the way of necessary radical action on climate change in the way of action on climate change stands a political economy with unsustainable links between the fossil fuel industry the financial sector and the state activists should ask themselves how civil disobedience can be used to
05:43
destabilize these things as the climate emergency gets worse and more and more people are directly affected by it we are likely to see continued and increased use of civil disobedience as a challenge to the legitimacy of a catastrophic business as usual and as colin will explain psychological theory office insights into the public reaction to that disobedience [Applause] [Music] civil disobedience often involves some form of disruption but it's not just about disrupting
06:15
transport it aims to disrupt people's thought processes and make people think about the motivations of the protesters and the cause that they're seeking to highlight breaking the law is one of the most compelling ways to gain people's attention because it violates powerful psychological norms our impulse to obey social norms and to defer to those in authority is deeply rooted in our evolutionary history when we look at other primates we see similar patterns of compliance
06:46
and difference to those higher in the social hierarchy in humans our adherence to these norms is reinforced by socialization processes that begin as soon as we're born of course some degree of obedience is essential for social harmony but obedience can also be problematic because those in authority sometimes make mistakes plane crashes are often the result of human error on the part of the pilot unfortunately we know from black box recordings recovered from the scene of
07:17
airliner crashes that in many cases the co-pilot was aware of the problem but avoided directly challenging the captain's authority sometimes authority is not only wrong but malevolent yet still we obey the history of the 20th century is littered with examples that remind us how blind obedience can lead people to do terrible things in his famous experiments on obedience stanley milgram found that ordinary
07:46
people would inflict harm on others if they were told to by an authority figure most people followed orders even when they believed that they were giving very painful perhaps even lethal electric shocks to another person this machine generates electric shocks when you press one of the switches all the way down the learner gets it shocked the switch will remain in this middle position after you released it to show you which switches you've used on the board of course if you were to press any one of them again the learner would get another shot
08:17
milgram's participants were often agitated and they would initially object but their resistance crumbled when faced with an authority figure who told them the experiment must continue under 65 votes continue please go on milgram described his partisan's behavior to a loss of agency it was as if they felt that their obedience to authority absolved them of any personal responsibility like the soldiers who were tried at nuremberg milgram's subjects were apparently so conditioned to obeying
09:01
authority that they had forgotten that there was the option to disobey now it is civilization's turn to read their monstrous crimes into the record but another of milgram's experiments showed that people would disobey and refuse to give any more shocks if they saw other people apparently disobeying it was as if witnessing disobedience reminded milgram's subjects of their own autonomy [Music] in the 1960s and early 1970s as the war
09:31
in vietnam intensified there were demonstrations across the united states in which young men burnt their draft club estimated 125 000 manhattan marchers include students housewives beatnik poets doctors businessmen teachers priests and nuns this was considered a serious crime and some of those found guilty spent two years in prison they could have avoided the war by registering as conscientious objectives or they could have fled to canada why did they stage this public protest
10:02
the answer is that their public display of disobedience was designed to force people to think about the legitimacy of the war they were inviting other young men to burn their own draft cards and parents to consider whether their sons should be sent to fight in a war with no clear purpose and legislators to wonder whether they were losing the ability to govern by consent civil rights leader martin luther king leads the procession to the united nations where he urges u.n pressure to force the u.s to stop bombing north vietnam
10:36
one of the ways in which civil disobedience is powerful then especially when practiced in a deliberate fashion by those who would ordinarily obey the law is that it expresses dissent from the status quo and serves as a reminder to onlookers of the possibility of not obeying it remind us that we have agency and that if there is something about the world as it is that we think is not as it should be then we have the freedom and perhaps the responsibility to do something about it
11:06
most of those who engage in civil disobedience are not seeking to overthrow authority rather they see their actions as a part of democracy and a way of communicating not only with their fellow citizens but also constructively with authority they may see themselves as being like a disobedient co-pilot who's trying to avert disaster they're not rejecting authority they're trying to help it as oscar mentioned being arrested and subjected to the force of the law is a way of showing respect for
11:40
established order but it's also important because it involves sacrifice the act of sacrifice seeks to arouse the conscience of sympathetic observers civil disobedience is most persuasive when it's non-threatening and non-violent and when the participants show a willingness to suffer for their beliefs and an ability to communicate that suffering witnessing this suffering can trigger an emotional response in observers a recognition of injustice
12:11
and perhaps the feeling of an obligation to act the activities which have taken place in birmingham over the last few days uh to my mind mark the non-violent movement coming of age and in a real sense this is the fulfillment of a dream but i've always felt that if we could fill the jails in our witness for freedom it
12:42
would be a magnificent expression of the determination of the negro and a marvelous way to lay the whole issue before the conscience of the local and national community exile's main goal has been to sound the alarm to make sure that people treat the climate and ecological crisis as emergencies it's not that most people are unaware of climate change but xr say that people have been lulled into thinking things are okay sometimes people say if things were
13:15
really that bad governments would be doing more and we'd see urgent action statements like that illustrate how we look to others to better understand how to interpret a situation a classic psychology experiment demonstrating this point was conducted at columbia university in the late 1960s participants were in a waiting room as what looked like smoke started to come into the room through a small vent in the wall before long it had filled the room
13:46
when the subject was alone in the room they would investigate the smoke and leave the room to tell someone but the response was very different when the subject was with two or three other people who had been instructed not to react to the smoke in this condition subjects tended to follow the lead of others they stayed in the waiting room coughing rubbing their eyes sometimes they opened the window but only one in ten subjects reported the smoke i think there's a resonance between this
14:19
experiment and the climate emergency for the last couple of centuries we've burnt fossil fuels at an increasing rate and the atmosphere is filling with the smoke in the form of carbon dioxide we started measuring levels of this gas in the atmosphere in 1958 and the scientist who led this effort was charles keeling and he said at the time through his worldwide industrial civilization man is unwittingly conducting a vast
14:49
geophysical experiment since then co2 levels have grown from 315 to parts per million and the global mean temperature has increased by about one degree celsius thanks to keeling and the climate scientists who followed him we can no longer say this global experiment is unwitting we know what's happening but what can we do as individuals it may feel as if there is some power beyond us demanding that the experiment must
15:20
continue exile uses civil disobedience to capture people's attention to remind them of their agency and to declare in effect that this global experiment must stop [Applause] at the moment we are facing the destruction of life on earth the destruction of our life support systems so to stand up against that destruction i feel is our human duty by being
15:51
arrested in defense of the living planet i feel i can look my children and maybe one day my grandchildren in the arts thank you for watching this collaborative video enabled by the cabot institute for the environment here at university of bristol we've given you our perspective but we'd love to hear what you think so please give us your comments and feedback you

DOWNLOAD SUBTITLES: