Satchidananda Panda - Watching Your Diet: One Click at a Time

Satchidananda Panda - Watching Your Diet: One Click at a Time

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00:00
thank you so much for coming so the way I would like to introduce what I do is just think about the rotating planet that we live on for almost billion years this has been rotating and almost every life form on this planet evolved on this rotating planet so with every rotation with every day there is a cycle of light and darkness and if you think of the source of all energy on this planet source of all food on this planet comes
00:33
from light we all have built up a CKD enclose or a 24 hours plot to anticipate when the Sun comes up and when it goes down and if we don't know what a circadian clock is then just think about babies when babies are born actually they don't have a strong clock so they go to sleep and then wake up and cry and go back to sleep and wake up and cry they do that almost in every three to four hours so just imagine if we all
01:05
didn't have a clock then half of you would be sleeping half would be crying but then what happens is after a few weeks maybe I actually pick up a clock and sanity comes to life and they if you are lucky they sleep a few hours eight to ten hours and then they stay awake but what is interesting is outside the Equator almost every other places with the change in season the light-dark cycle also changes so that means this
01:37
clock should also track when Sun comes up in different season so in addition to all of these actually a body clock does a lot of different things for example if you went to bed last night around say 10 o'clock then you're deep asleep happen around two o'clock and the body actually the clock anticipates when to wake up so the body wants it slightly even before your alarm clock goes up and then at six or seven if you woke up then your
02:08
melatonin level which is its sleep hormone it begins drop and your stress hormone begins to rise because that's when the priests save humans started to run to grab some food and eat so the best alertness is around morning time so if you fall asleep during my talk you can blame it on the o'clock and then towards the afternoon if you think about it the pre civilized humans had to run back from outside to get to get home or find
02:38
shelter so stimulus so accordingly our clock actually tells our muscle to be most active in the late afternoon in fact that the best time to exercise because the injury is less and then melatonin level rises you fall asleep and then the body cools down and that helps us sleep so as ice as I said for all this cloth to to work perfectly in different season we also have to train our clock to light what a surprising was
03:10
for very long time we didn't know how clock receives light and that's why we went back to mice and little mice also have a clock just like us the only difference is my son nocturnal so they sleep during the day and there are work during night time so all these processes happen but they're just flipped what is interesting was almost hundred years ago there was a graduate PhD student in Harvard he had some blind mice and in figured out that although these mice
03:42
could not read and could not see stuff they could actually constrict the pupil when bright light was there so they could constrict their pupil and subsequently in next 40 to 50 years we could also figure out that this blind mice can respond to light so they will entrain their clock to light dark cycle and we know that light suppresses sleep we cannot fall asleep in a lighted room so similarly mice fall asleep in a lighted room because they're nocturnal so all of these things that happens in
04:13
response to light that we took for granted was actually happening in a mouse so that was very curious because we knew so much about how we see but we did not know what is this missing light receptor in the eye so almost 12 13 years ago when I was a postdoc I was working I was beginning my research into mammals a mouse during that time we discovered a new light receptor in our eye and this was really
04:44
a big discovery in our field because for hundred years people are looking for this missing light receptor and this light receptor is present only in few thousand cells for example our eye has 15 million rod and cones that give us this vision but they're only this light receptor is present only in five thousand cells and we call it melanopsin and it actually helps us to stay awake during daytime and also the absence of
05:15
light helps us to fall asleep night so how do we figure out that this is the light receptor so we actually had a mouse that did not have this light receptor and what you're looking at here is during daytime the mouse lives and then wakes up and be active so that's what you are seeing here and then it does it and the activity is mostly at the night time so now imagine if we fly the mouse from here to Beijing 12 hours light dark cycle change then the mouse takes six to seven days of jetlag to
05:46
readjust to that new light dark cycle but if you have a mouse that can clearly see everything is fine the only thing that's missing is this new light receptor that we discover and if you fly this mouse from here to Beijing it takes almost a month to readjust and that was really really exciting because this mouse can see but it cannot sense light to reset its clock so subsequently what we have done is we actually can level these cells very nicely with modern
06:16
molecular biology techniques so you see those cells and the light of very nicely and this send what we call axon so these are wires they go into the brain so now we can follow these wires and see what do these waves go and what is interesting is when we follow them we find that they go to the base of the brain called hypothalamus and there are these twos tiny centers and that's where we knew that there are 10,000 cells only 10,000 cells are the billions of cells in our body only this
06:47
10,000 cells have clock and these master clocks actually regulate our sleep/wake cycles so we found a direct connection on this light sensor to the clock and next if we follow these fibers just like that Magic School Bus story then we actually reach another part of the brain that constricts our pupil so for example if you go out to the courtyard your pupil will constrict and these cells regulate that now along the same route if we go back little bit then we see
07:19
that another part of the brain also lights up and this part of the brain actually helps us to see brightness for example when you're watching TV you change the brightness level and that sensed by the same cells but if you give me too much then what happens is there are these tiny fibers that goes deep into the brain and those are actually the same cells that sense light and make us uncomfortable so some of you who might go to the beach and spend 3 to 4 hours may come back with a headache
07:48
a migrant pen said these same cells that sends excessive light and can trigger migraine so in general what this discovery led us to understand is this light sensor is most sensitive to blue spectrum of light and sunlight is very rich in blue light but in the light for example right now where I am standing there is very little blue light so the so what happens is most of our indoor lighting is very poor in blue light so
08:20
if our indoor almost throughout the day and night then we don't get that blue light that resets our clock makes us happy and we can tend to become depressed another thing is these cells are very less sensitive to light so that means we need a lot of light to actually activate these brain centers for example in a typical of this room without windows you may have 100 to 200 locks applied that's enough to do your task but it's not enough to
08:50
activate this sensors enough so that you feel happy and a lot and at nighttime they can actually integrate light over time so that means even if there is dim light it'll actually count how many photons are coming in and can keep you away so that's why some of you may find it very difficult to fall asleep even if there is little light early in the room so now this discovery is also leading to now think about light in a very different way we are actually working
09:20
with engineers and standard setters who are trying to figure out how to set design standard to have enough light during daytime and also give freedom to people so that they can sleep in a dark room what we have lost in modern life is a right to darkness and that's what we are bringing up so now let's switch gear and think about bigger health ISM if I was born in the year 1900 and my life expectancy would have been only 47 years
09:52
and only one in hundred lived up to the age of 90 years one third of all babies died before the age of five and that led to the idea that the leading cause of death was infectious disease or microbes of bogs were actually the culprit so sanitation vaccinations and antibiotics save life in fact Jonas Salk who invented the polio vaccine at that time there are 50,000 new cases of polio every year in the US and just after vaccine s and five years of vaccination
10:25
the number of new polio dropped down to hundred so imagine what a huge impact it had but now in 2010 an average humans who is average baby who is born will live up to 79 years one in four may leave up to 90 years but the problem is although we extended lifespan we haven't actually been successful in extending health spa staying healthy for example one third of all adults beyond the age of 21
10:56
from at least one chronic disease that means it can be obesity fatty liver disease cardiovascular disease etc and 80% of elders 65 years or older have multiple chronic disease and what we are understanding now is lifestyle contributes to disease risk and the cure is very rare it's very rare to see a insulin-dependent type-2 diabetic becoming normal so now we got to figure out what is lifestyle and how we can change it when you think of lifestyle we
11:26
often think it's what and how much we do certain things eat drink sleep move around something like that but what we're finding is lifestyle is also what when and how much we eat sleep and move around I will get to that shortly so what we found in the last few years it's not only discoveries from our lab many labs have contributed to the discovery there just like in the brain almost every organ in our body has clocks even our hair follicles also have clocks and
11:57
that helped us to time different things to different time of the day for example just imagine your hair follicle actually every evening our hair follicle repairs itself so that's why you never see a hair cancer because there is a strong clock and that repairs it so similarly our liver is very good in metabolizing sugar in the first half of the day but it's not that good in the second half or in the evening so almost every organ has clock so how do we figure out that what
12:30
is the importance of this clock what we knew was when the clocks don't work properly then we get disease and this happens in at least two different cases one is when we eat unhealthy food for example high-fat fatty food or when we as we get older our clocks actually weaken so we got to figure out how to strengthen our clock so this is an example that has been done almost ten fifteen thousand times around the world
13:00
what people do is they take identical set of mice and one set of mouse it's healthy diet and then the other set of mouse gets high fat diet so they get around six sort of calories from fat which is equivalent to eating only ice-cream nachos and cheese all the time and what happens is after nine weeks that Mouse becomes fat and that led to the idea that high-fat diet causes obesity diabetes because this might also become obese diabetic they also have high cholesterol high insulin they get cardiovascular disease and if you have a
13:32
faulty gene then this much these mice will also get dementia a very quickly but then we asked well let's see when do this mice eat my son normal diet they eat most of their food during night time because they are nocturnal my son - diet surprisingly they split their calorie and then eat throughout day and night and as a consequence what happens is my son normal child they have a very strong clock and my son hyper diet have a very faulty clock we asked
14:03
how can we actually change the clock here without giving them a medication or without introducing a gene or something else so now we took two identical set of mice one set of mice ate whatever they want and then the other set of mice was given access to food only for 8 to 12 hours every night and mice are very smart if this realized that food is available only for 8 to 10 hours then they will take they will eat all of that daily calorie intake within that eight hours
14:34
so both sets of mice now ate same number of calories and we measured them almost every week we also measured their body weight and we did this experiment for almost 18 weeks which is equivalent to almost 15 years in human life so after 18 weeks this mouse is obese as expected but surprisingly the smiles that add the same calorie and the same type of food was lean in fact this Mouse was 28% leaner and had 70% less body fat now if
15:07
we now do pathology on this my stakeout little past part of liver the mice that eat high fat diet whatever they want that is our libitum they have cattle liver disease and in fact one in three adults in the US suffer from fatty liver disease and we don't even know and that predisposes us to many different diseases and why's that at the same fatty diet but within eight to ten hours the liver was looking pretty good and in fact you cannot figure out whether this liver is
15:39
different from mice that ate healthy diet so we did few of the tests and what we found is this time restricted feeding where the calorie is not restricted but the time is defined that led to reduced cholesterol reduce sugar reduced body fat normal body weight the spent more energy they had better motor control and endurance and I'll get to that so we published this paper saying well if mice eat for eight hours then they stay healthy but then the question was well
16:10
can we take a cat mouse and shrink the mouse and second is is 8 hours or 10 hours a magic number what if we give mice food for 12 hours 15 hours where should we stop and if the mice actually ate for 8 hours for half of their life and then the switch to our live eatin will they become fat and we asked well we actually don't eat 60% Hyperlight what we eat in the u.s. is mostly high fructose high fat moderate fat so what about all these fats so now I'll give
16:42
you a little bit of science talk so forget about all these complex figures so the bottom line is what we did we took mice and then gave them different kind of diet I felt high fructose they got the food for 9 hours 15 hours 12 hours and then sometimes they got the food only for nine hours during the weekday weekend they could charm whatever they want whenever they want and then we pattern of demise and then put them on time restricted feeding all these kinds of experiments and in every
17:13
experiment we made sure that all these groups of mice are eating the same number of calorie from the same food the only thing that we're changing was timing and that's what is shown here all these groups they add similar amount of calorie and pair demise that ate five days of time restricted two days of at live or gorging they actually eat more than the control mice they eat extra food but what is surprising is after several weeks when we put this mice on a special scale that measures
17:44
their total body weight fat lean mass water and everything then invariably whatever diet they are on if they eat for somewhere between 9 to 12 hours even 5 days of time restricted they have less body weight and they also have less hair so the red person here is fat and what we found is irrespective of what whatever diet they're eating if they eat for nine to twelve hours then they're healthy 15 hours was not so healthy what if the mice become fed first
18:16
and then we transport them to nine hour diet then the lost body weight if they were eating for nine hours and then we met them free to eat whenever they want they also became fat mice that ate only healthy diet the body word did not change but what is interesting is they gain more lean mass or muscle mass if they eat only for nine to twelve hours every day so irrespective of diet type they had benefit then we asked how is the muscle strength because you know you
18:48
want to be healthy you should have good muscles if we put this mice to lift where that's what this is we don't see any difference in weightlifting but if we put this - on a treadmill then mice will drawn on treadmill for 40 to 75 minutes and mice that eat only for nine hours they actually run on treadmill for almost twice long and this was surprising what was we never expected that they would actually improve their performance but this was surprising and we find that all the time but what is
19:19
surprising is they get this endurance benefit only when they eat nine hours or eight hours if they eat for 12 to 15 hours they don't get that extra benefit and endurance so now next we publish this paper that if you take a cat mouse and it gates for limited hours it becomes lean if you take a lean Mouse it's whenever they want then they become fat so that's easy to remember so now we thought well let's go
19:48
and try a different organism and we also do experiments on fruit flies so it took fruit flies and get fruit flies independence to eat whenever they want or they got to eat only for 12 hours and then we did the health check off and every two weeks and what a surprising was this is how a baby fruit flies sleeps it sleeps very well throughout the night because fruit flies are diurnal and in the morning and evening they eat a very big meal and in the daytime they're
20:21
having little siesta just like human babies do but as the fruit flies become older if they eat whenever they want then the sleep becomes really bad in nighttime they go to bed but then after a few hours they wake up they cannot go back to sleep and daytime they're sleepy but they if they eat only for 12 hours although they're eating the same number of calories they sleep very well throughout the night and throughout the day they are much more awake but that's not the big thing we're looking after we
20:52
we actually wanted to see how they're hardcore Fox and fruit flies do have heart not like us they have a tube like structure and this hard actually bits very well and we can take a microscope put your video camera and we can see the beating fruit fly heart and we can now do something what we call image analysis where we can see that there are seven different parameters of heart function that are also tested in humans so we
21:22
know that as we age just like fruit flies these seven parameters change so our systolic diameter - - like diameter all of these things change and our heart becomes more arid make we wanted to test what happens to fruit flies that it only put 12 hours so I study the baseline or three-week old fruit fly and by five weeks old if the fly was eating whenever it wanted then it has a lot of air ethnicity flies live only for seven
21:54
so these are kind of let is little bit older flies eat this fruit flies it only for 12 hours now you can see how the heart is it's pretty rhythmic so that was profound and we have done this experiment again and again and we can actually take a older fruit fly put it on 12 hours diet and its heart becomes slightly better so now if we combine the mouse and fruit fly experiment what we see is the eating time interval has a huge benefit and blood cholesterol blood sugar body weight body fat inflammation
22:27
so for example joint pain etc and stomach health that dysbiosis and sleep cardiac function endurance etc so what about humans well if we we know that all of these things happen at specific time of the day but we humans we wake up to a alarm clock then we grab a cup of coffee then we are rushing out of the door to get to work and on the way we grab some breakfast we reached work and then somebody bring some cake or cookie from
22:59
home so we have a snack then we have our lunch then you go to a meeting we have coffee then cookies so we keep on eating so we wanted to see when actually people eat what is interesting is in nutrition science people always ask when do you have breakfast when you have lunch when you have dinner but nobody asked very specifically tell me everything that you eat throughout the day and one problem is we can't remember everything that we eat because we need different things on different days so what we did we met a
23:31
smartphone app where people have to just take a picture of what they eat they don't have to say what it let's take a picture and press that button it will come to our server and we'll figure out what you get we have all the records so we did this for three weeks from some San Diego adults so we had nearly 150 people in this and people are not very shy about what they is they took picture of almost everything you can see all kinds of beer and no water here little bit handful of nuts somewhere a little bit of cheese so they are not shy so
24:04
what we found was now the question is how do we so this data in a different way so we call it a pedo gun so that means we bring all those pictures and then line them up on a time line and we did this for three weeks so every hash mark here is essentially what whether the person ate something other than water and if you look at this you can see that this person actually it will randomly throughout their night and this was
24:34
weekday and weekend so now again how do we make sense of all of this data now we put all of them together and we ask ok so this is how the person kind of eats during weekdays and that's giving the weekend and so here the fasting duration for example was 6 hours during the weekdays and 8 hours during the weekend and we can figure out what is the eating duration so that's the breakfast to last bite that was around 18 hours for this person during the weekday which we know in mice is pretty bad and 16 hours in
25:06
the weekend and just like when we travel to a new place we get jetlag our stomach also gets the jetlag when we change up that first time in the weekday we can so this person had a jetlag up or metabolic jetlag of four hours what is interesting is when we ask these people when do we eat almost invariably everybody says we eat for 12 hours because those things when they had their breakfast and when they are that dinner but what is interesting is they ignore the coffee they ignore the late-night snack or a
25:37
glass of wine but we know that every single calorie or every single coffee does matter because the impact our clock or just imagine the coffee is not going and sitting in the stomach until the breakfast comes the stomach gets up and starts processing that coffee is sending it to liver liver send is to brain and that's how we wake up so now that was one person's data and how do this how does this data look 450 people now we put them on a circle and that fix a.m.
26:10
that's nine and that's noon and every sent concentric circle is data from one person what you can see is almost most of the people wake up around somewhere between - nine start eating and this is three weeks of data and people do it the lunch around noon and dinner around say seven or eight but then they continue eating the small meals and snacks sometimes some of them very radically now if we ask what is the average number of calories per picture then we do see as
26:40
expected that is slight increase year so I'd increase there but then the midnight snacks are actually more dense in calories the reason is actually what we eat in midnight so the blue are the ones that we eat during daytime for example coffee in the morning we're a little coffee at night but if you think of alcohol that's pretty high in the night and then there is ice cream high in night so that explains why our late-night calorie intake is so high if you think of spicy food that goes with lunch and dinner but when switch it just starts in the morning and goes all the
27:12
way till bedtime so now just like in mice now we knew that okay so in mice if they eat for 12 hours or shorter they're healthy for how many hours these people are actually eating what we find is 50% of adults eat for 15 hours or longer and that's pretty scary because we know that that if sustained of a lifetime can actually make us unhealthy we also had another question that how do people eat between
27:42
weekdays and weekend so we get them a little watch that I'm wearing so that we can monitor their sleep-wake cycle and then we can figure out what is that week that we can and weekday eating pattern the bottom line is almost 40% of adults delay their breakfast by one hour and then qualify percent delay our breakfast by two hours the dinner is very random another thing that we asked is we know that grandma said we should eat a big meal in the morning so he asked do
28:13
people actually eat a big meal in the morning since we had calorie intake from every single hours now if we map what we find is by middle of the day people eat only less than 1/4 of that calorie by evening we still have 1/3 of calories to go in the first three hours of evening we eat more food than in the first eight hour of the day so actually we are following exactly the opposite of conventional wisdom we eat we are now eating more food in the evening and we
28:44
know that a body our clock tells that we cannot process that much food in the evening we're much better processing that amount of food in the morning now we also know that what time they went to bed what time they wake up so we asked what do people do 80% eat or drink something within an hour of waking up and that's not water and 50% eat or drink something within two hours before going to bed so that means as long as our eyes are open a mouth is also so now
29:16
the finally what we did we took we asked eight people who are eating for 14 hours longer and we asked would you like to do one thing try to eat whatever you want to eat within yourself selected 10 to 11 hours we are not going to tell you how much you should eat or what you should we just eat for 10 to 11 hours and they agreed and we make that food Oh Graham during baseline what we call three weeks we monitored and that was nearly 14 to 15 hours and during this 16 weeks they
29:47
actually took picture of all that means most of the days they took picture of their food and what we find is that reduce their eating time to 11 hours and when they do that then they lost some body weight they improve their sleep and they felt more energetic throughout the day and the effect sustained for one year it's very difficult to make it sustained change in behavior that stays for up to one year so this was really interesting so that was the summary of that part and then what you can do what we all can do to extend this study
30:19
because there's only eight people and we monitor only hundred fifty-six people so now we have a new app and we call it the mice Akkadian clock you can go to this website and sign up so if you go to the website then it will ask you a few questions to know about yourself and then after you answer we actually give you a what we call informed consent so that means you consented to participate in a ten time you can also withdraw your consent you can download the app from App Store
30:49
or Google Play so it works both on Android and iPhones and then you can start using the app to log your sleep food activity and sleep every day so all this data is sent with secure server just like your bank uses secure server and encryption we use exactly the same kind of communication tools and also everybody's identity is anonymized so no one knows except for two or three researchers who are part of the study to know who is who and we don't say at the data and then every day one gets a
31:21
reminder or daily health tapes and then periodic reports and you can also send feedbacks and comments to researchers and you can also say no I don't want to participate anymore just take my name name huff we also are trying to go beyond this room to tell you about clock and health so now we have a website where we do have let me see we have a blog so you can read more about our biological clock or circadian clock
31:53
works and different doctors different laypeople everybody is writing how it affects their health etc and outside as as you heard there is a wellness and nutrition booths there are twelve people from our lab and collaborators including a famous cardiologist will be out there to answer your question and we have almost four MD PhDs here in the areas of circadian clock vision science of
32:23
thermal Ozzie and gastroenterology and when you go to that booth you will also get a body composition analysis on a scale and usually when you go to a fitness center you have to pay thirty to fifty bucks to get that analysis done so you can sign up for the app and then get a get a sticker or get a magnet to put on your kitchen and I'll get to that so why this is important because this is important not only for adults like us this is also important for young children
32:55
didn't have time to talk about that what we are saying is when children lose sleep or have irritating habit then they have increased cases of inattention at school ADHD symptoms can increase poor school performance and they can get into depression and anxiety whereas in adults when we have a broken cloth one or when we have disrupted sleep or eating pattern then we get into lot of different troubles starting from metabolic disease all the way to dementia and memory deficit so when you
33:28
go out and if you sign up will get a kitchen magnet like this where hopefully you can go and say what time you should close your kitchen and what time you should turn off your light thank you questions I was just curious when you did the experiments on fruit flies and mice or for various durations of time how do you control the time they are eating how do you program a flu try to
34:18
eat for 12 hours or early eight hours now so it's very simple what we do is we transfer them from a vial that has food to another vial that only has a little bit of agar to keep the humidity and within that 12 hours fruit flies just like mice the lawn to eat the same number of calories can you
34:55
repeat that can you repeat that again I can you've asked orthogonal questions who what when where and why very interesting but the important question is for the person who's not a scientist or how and how much how do you cut down eating and what do you eliminate from your diet you didn't get into that I don't think so I'm interested in your comments about that yeah so how we we can change our diet and how much to eat yes how much to eat is a very important
35:26
point what is interesting is when we ask these people to reduce the eating interval to 10 to 11 hours we didn't tell them change your diet or reduce your calorie what is interesting is as you can imagine if they started somewhere else say around 9 o'clock in the morning and they are eating only for 10 hours they go till 7:00 in the evening they cut down on their alcohol and these so that reduced the number of calories by up to 20% without them counting every calorie
35:58
second thing is since they excluded this unhealthy food they also improve their nutrition so it's a very indirect way to change your nutrition we are not like my sub fruit flies we don't pack all of our calories within 10 to 11 hours when we are asked to eat only for 10 to 11 hours we also improved nutrition and reduce total calories yes are you including
36:32
water or non-caloric beverages in your eating period eating good now we don't we don't include water while calculating so you can drink water whenever you want non calorie beverages that's very confusing for most people one is for example you drink a black coffee and as I said the black coffee is not going and sitting in our stomach it actually affects our circadian clock it affects metabolism it affects how a body
37:04
responds to energy it also goes to the brain that's how we stay awake and it affects our sleep so many non-caloric beverages that we think is benign and may be taken with moderation because it has other effects that's why you are drinking it we often hear the eating small meals during the day is better than large meals so within that 11 hours is it more beneficial to eat 5 small
37:35
meals or three big meals or two big meals so those are the questions we want to answer in a large study like when volunteers come up and record their food what is happening in mices mice actually don't eat three large meals they eat small meals throughout that eight to 12 hours interval and yes small meals are good because of glucose control that's what the doctors always tell us but at the same time the problem for us is it's very difficult to define what is a small mill means one we start
38:07
eating half a cookie sometimes it's very hard to stop there so that's the problem in many cases yes you know when I hear something like this I always like to try to see how it measures up to evolution and I'm wondering um why would it seems to that it's healthy to eat when foods available why would mother nature make an organism that gets sick when it eats
38:38
when foods available if as it's not in bad food or getting too many calories any ideas on that yeah so in evolution we also had access to food at predictable time for example if you're in the wild and if the person is hunting it's actually much more likely to hunt during Twilight time because that's when the animals come to watering hole and if there was
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agriculture then early morning one has to go and pick up the berries and fruits otherwise the birds will come and eat them so in that way if you think about evolution there was a pressure to eat to have access to food at certain time of the day when it comes to quality of food if you think a little bit broadly for example now dial back say 100 years and we know that the Asians eat more high carb diet south of Europe it's slightly more say fruits and vegetables
39:40
Mediterranean diet and the north of Europe it's mostly meat and fatty food cheese etc but if diet quality actually affects our disease then we should have seen diabetes being epidemic in Asia or high-fat diet causing fatty liver disease in Europe we didn't see that because 100 years ago the grand equalizer was the absence of light so we are forced to eat all of our food during daytime because it was very expensive to have lights on or to have a
40:12
refrigerator to store food yes that's what we did not have in our study and now we want to follow because this is a very important question because in any industrialized country somewhere between 17 to 20 percent of workforce work and sits and it's not only then just imagine their family members the spouses are waiting for them to come back so that they can eat lunch or dinner together so they are eating pattern that sleeping pattern is also
40:50
affected and now imagine people who are actually non card-carrying shift worker what I mean by that is anyone who lives home say around six o'clock in the morning or before and reaches arm after 7:00 p.m. there are also kind of shift workers and if we include that then in Europe 44 percent of adults a kind of this shift worker and that's actually a huge problem and we know that shift work itself predisposes to obesity diabetes
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cardiovascular disease certain kind of cancer for example breast cancer is pretty high and that's why even World Health Organization has declared CKD and rhythm disruption it's politically incorrect to say shift work is a carcinogen so it's a huge problem and we are trying to figure out how to model now shift working animals first and see how we can do foot timing to reduce the health risk and then we'll go to be a few months interested good afternoon
41:52
doctor so I have a question also I think it's a good pop up of this one about we were talking about the jet lag from the weekend eaters and the and the weekday eaters yeah I would like you to elaborate a little bit more on this jet lag okay so for example when you so our brain has a clock and that brain clock regular it's our sleep/wake cycle so when we move fly from East Coast to west coast or vice versa we experience that change in time and we're trying to adapt
42:25
to the local time and as a conflict between what our internal time says and what the external time is and that's why we feel groggy so similarly the liver also has a clock and it regulates metabolism it's tuned to breakfast time during the weekday and now in the weekend when we go to eat breakfast at a different time the liver is almost thinking it's in a different time zone so it tries to readjust to that new time for two days
42:55
and then again we are coming back to Monday the regular breakfast time so that causes this timing conflict for those so that's why we call it kind of social jetlag yeah so for example what happens is the clock helps us to anticipate food and that's a huge advantage that means what happens or pancreas our gut prepares for the
43:25
arrival of food so for example if we if I am eating it of breakfast at 8:00 around seven o'clock my body is expecting that breakfast and is already making all these digestive juice and everything and if my breakfast does not arrive at eight o'clock and is delayed up to ten then that breakfast for a chance it doesn't have the same kind of digestive juice and everything else that was present so we missed that trend and then in Monday when I am changing my breakfast time to 6:00 a.m. then the
43:56
food app arrives when the body is not ready so just imagine on it on a week-to-week basis it won't be a big problem just imagine showing up for work fifteen minutes late or half an hour late once or twice in a week it doesn't matter but if we continue to do that when it comes to promotion time he'll be a bad remark so these small defect inefficiencies shows up later in life almost like driving a car with a bad timing belt
44:26
will not stop your car for the next 200 miles but will show up after 2,000 miles yes Thank You professor um so I know your talk didn't talk about the correlation between generational eating habits but the is there anything with the eating on the regular schedule and then with our generational eating habits
45:01
of you know family structure do you in the sense of that that we don't eat like we did 50 years ago you know with you know at the table well at 6 o'clock at night it just I hope my question made sense yeah so what if what we tend to say is we are kind of in the free range lifestyle almost everybody in the family has a different schedule for example the kids
45:37
wake up very early in the morning and then they have to we think that they have to eat something before leaving for school because they may not have breakfast at school and then we kind of have a different lifestyle and then at the end of the day we all come back and then we think that ok so this is the social time and we should eat together even if we ate a different time we'd say well let's go out and have ice cream together and what it does is it actually lengthens everybody is eating pattern
46:07
and disrupts everybody's eating patterns so the social aspect of lifestyle is very interesting these days because every age group needs a different lifestyle when you put them together under the same roof then it's very difficult to adopt with each other so almost everybody there's shift work on a different sheet yeah so it's a little bit much ideal to have the same breakfast time every day oh we can yeah
47:23
yeah so these are this these are the kind of questions we want to answer in a larger studies where we will see whether people who change still state the 10 hours but move that window day or night what happens to them so those kind of questions we want to answer in this study

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