Reclaim your freedom with free libre software now - Richard Stallman of Free Software Movement

Reclaim your freedom with free libre software now - Richard Stallman of Free Software Movement

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00:02
first I have some requests for you number one please do not post photos with me in them in facebook or its subsidiaries Instagram and what's up that company is a monstrous surveillance engine it recognizes people in photos by their faces or even the backs of their heads so if you post a photo where a certain person appears in facebook or
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its subsidiaries you are helping that company track that person it's missed you're treating that person badly please don't do that to me and by the way I have never been a used of Facebook I don't have a Facebook account I hope you won't let Facebook use you either people don't use Facebook Facebook uses people uses people to get data about other people second if you want to make a
01:04
recording of this talk and distribute copies please do that only in the format's that are favorable to free software the format's that you can play without yourself running any non free software and please make sure that the website of distribution permits downloading a copy without the visitors running any non free software not even non free JavaScript software which I never run I block it because I won't run
01:35
on free programs I don't trust them and also please put on the copies you distribute the license Creative Commons no derivatives because this is not a technical presentation this is about politics and ethics so the top this talk is about privacy which relates closely to free software they overlap a lot but they are also separate and privacy is
02:05
extremely important when a great hero Edward Snowden informed us how much the government was snooping on our web browsing the rate of access to certain Wikipedia pages fell by 20% pages like al-qaeda bomb you know these people they were not terrorists but they were afraid that the government would treat them as terrorists if they were seen looking up certain topics in the
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encyclopedia so people are intimidated by the knowledge that they're being watched all the time but it threatens democracy more directly you see democracy means that people control what the state does how do we have control over it we have to first we have to know what the state does the state tends to hide its actions and the only way we find out is through whistleblowers heroes like Edward Snowden
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three cheers for Edward Snowden hip-hip hooray hip hip hooray hip hip hooray but the government doesn't want the people to find out about its secret tricking be nasty perhaps criminal behaviors so the government declares the whistleblower to be a spy and a traitor and tries to put the hero in prison and at this point if the government can identify the
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whistleblower it's too dangerous to be a whistleblower if we want to find out what the state is doing so that we the people can have control over it we need to make whistleblowers safe but if the government can tell who goes we're and who talks with whom there's no way for the journalist source the whistleblower to talk with the whisk with a journalist and have the government not know so we must reduce the level of data collection
04:10
about people down to the point where the state can't tell who's talking with journalists any system of data collection that enables the state to find out who talked with that journalist is a deadly threat to democracy and no matter what supposed secondary purpose this data collection serves we can't we don't dare permitted to continue well the reason that we are
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subject now to more surveillance than there was in the Soviet Union is that digital technology made it possible and the first disaster of digital technology was proprietary software that people would install and run on their own computers and they wouldn't know what it's doing they can't tell what it's doing and that was the first injustice that I began fighting in 1983
05:13
proprietary software software that is not free livre software that the users don't control so uh when I say free software I'm talking about freedom not price I don't mean software that doesn't cost you money the price is a side issue I don't care at all I have paid money for copies of free software I've sold copies of free software the price is a minor detail I care about freedom all
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the software I develop respects the users freedom whether they pay me for a copy or not but what is a program anyway it's a bunch of instructions that tell a computer what to do all the computer knows how to do is get an instruction and do what that says get the next instruction do what that says over and over the instructions come from the program and depending on which program is giving instructions to the computer it can do anything well there's some
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things that are impossible but within the limits of what poss what's possible the same computer can do anything with the right program well who is giving the instructions to your computer you might think it's you hello you might think it's you when in fact it's somebody else you might think your computer is hello you might think your computer is obeying
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you when really it's obeying the real master first and then it only obeys you when the real master says it's ok with every program there are two possibilities either the users control the program or the program controls the users this is a free program of it's free software if the users control it and that's why it respects their freedom otherwise it's a non free proprietary
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user subjugating program in order for the program to be free practically speaking it must give the users the four essential freedoms freedom zero is to run the program however you wish for whatever purpose you have freedom one is calm hello ah a slide has disappeared but well in any case freedom one is the freedom to study and change the source
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code now you can see some source code that's like a mixture of English and math if you've learned that programming language you can read it and understand it and then you can change it but to run it we convert it into executable code which is very hard for anybody to understand that's called reverse engineering so practically speaking in order for users to be free to study and change the program they've got to have the source code so freedom one is freedom to study the source code and
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change it so it does your computing activity the way you wish now these two freedoms give us separate control so each user controls per copies I can change I'm free to change my copies you're free to change your copies well this is essential but it's not enough because most users don't have a program but they also deserve control over their computing and the way we give it to them is through collective control meaning the freedom to work in a group to
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exercise control over what the program does here you see a group of 3 users two of them are changing the code they must be programmers and the third one is not changing the code maybe that's a person a user of the program who doesn't program doesn't write code but they discuss together what changes to make so even the non programmer participates in having control over what that program does and then there are two other users who are also using a program but they're
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not working with those three it's up to you whether you work with other people and it's up to them to those who want to work together they do and when they don't they don't collective control is what is the way that non programmers can participate in deciding what that program should do and it requires two more freedoms freedom to is to make exact unmodified copies and give or sell them to others when you wish and freedom
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three is to make copies of your modified versions and give or sell them to others when you wish now selling is perfectly legitimate because we don't say it has to be gratis that's not our issue freedom is our issue so when the program carries these four freedoms the users control it it respects their freedom that's free software but if one of these freedoms is missing or incomplete then the program controls the users and the
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proprietor controls the program so this program because it's not free software is an instrument of unjust power it gives the proprietor power over the program's users this by itself is a reason why non-free software is an injustice non-free software should not exist non-free software oppresses its users and therefore I won't use it I don't have any I go out of my way to make sure
11:05
nobody does that to me and I also because of my conscience refused to help do that to other people I've got to treat them ethically too it's not just I who deserves freedom it's everyone who deserves freedom for the same reasons in the same way well this is the first injustice but because the proprietors know that they have power over users they're tempted to mistreat users with that power they put in malicious
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functionalities this is why the widely used proprietary programs are typically malware and among other things they often spy on their users here's a shocking example this is Amazon's ebook reader the Amazon swindle it transmits from time to time the name of the book being read and the page number to Amazon servers if the user enters any notes they're sent to Amazon to total Orwellian surveillance of the user now
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when I find out a product is this malicious I would never think of using it I say absolutely not I don't care what conveniens are options or choices it offers me I refuse to be oppressed this way take that swindle and step on it and lots of proprietary program spy windows spies macca spies io spies flash player spies thousands of apps spy on the user and then there are
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the there's another one that's missing here too strange there was a picture here of the bit the device that keeps track of how you walk and sends the data to a company and then and says would you like to buy this data back for me data about you yourself and who else can I sell it to the point is that's an advanced form of spying
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whenever there's an app or a product that's tied to a particular server that's something automatically that's going to shaft you but and that's why the Internet of Things will I call it the Internet of stings it's a way that these companies can get power over more things in your life snoop on more things in your life and have total power and they start by saying it's optional and
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then your insurance company says if you use it we'll give you a discount and slowly that morphs into if you don't use it we're going to charge you extra and almost everybody feels compelled to say yes and if we applied that kind of standard to consent to sex it would be basically defining that there's always consent isn't there which shows it's the wrong standard to apply and it's wrong
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here - hmm when people are systematically pressured into saying yes they're not really saying yes this is another kind of malicious functionality DRM digital restrictions management the functionality of stopping people from doing the things they want to do any
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device with DRM is clearly designed to fight against the user so that's malware but then there is the backdoor of functionality to let somebody remotely attack the user the Amazon swindle has a backdoor for erasing books we saw this in 2009 Amazon remotely erased thousands of books thousands of copies of the same
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book it was 1984 by George Orwell so of course this stimulated a lot of criticism so Amazon said it would never do this again unless ordered to by the state right even if Amazon had meant that seriously it would not be an adequate response but Amazon didn't mean it seriously it was just supposed to sound like a promise supposed to take away the momentum from
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the critics because a few years later Amazon went back to remotely erasing books at a distance you know by force without even in order from the stage and then there's censorship the iPhone introduced the the practice of designing general-purpose computers to censor the application software and when users who didn't like being afflicted with
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censorship found ways to bypass the censorship and install unapproved applications or their own applications they called it jailbreaking which means in effect the iPhone is a jail that's what we call it well uh-oh then there is the universal backdoor Windows has had a universal backdoor since Windows XP a universal backdoor means that they can
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forcibly change the software at a distance it's a universal backdoor in the same sense that a computer is a universal computing engine it can be programmed to do absolutely any nasty thing to the user just write the code to do that nasty thing and forcibly install it another system that Windows has had it since Windows XP and nowadays when Microsoft even admits it since Windows 7 Microsoft admits that there's a
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universal backdoor but that's not the only thing portable phones every portable phone has a universal backdoor that's how they remotely convert them into full-time listening devices so what is a mobile phone it tracks a person's movements all the time it's always sending signals saying Here I am here's where you should tell me about phone calls or or text messages it has to do
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that that's it in order for it to function but the effect is that the phone company finds out always where it is and can localize it very precisely by triangulation from multiple towers and it gets more accurate every year as they add more towers and with the back door they can convert it into a full-time listening device that hears all the conversation in the room even when it's
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not making any call even when it's supposed to be switched off you see a mobile phone has no off switch it only has a button saying would you please be so kind as to switch off but once it's been modified it is not so kind anymore it doesn't switch off you push the button and it pretends to switch off but it keeps running and listening and transmitting
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all the time I call this Stalin's dream this is what Stalin would have yearned for if someone had told Stalin I'll show you how to make a device you could they'll be cheap you can give one to everybody in the Soviet Union and it will send signal saying where they are all the time and all their conversations will be listened to and sent back to headquarters if you're interested in
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them Stalin would have said well that's wonderful design it for me and then he would have killed you but the point is Stalin couldn't do that he might not it might have been too far-fetched even for him to dream of but this is what's happening today and I expect that most of you here have made the mistake of starting to carry one of these devices I never have because I see how horrible it
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is I see and I know how much this kind of surveillance is dangerous to democracy people of course are intimidated individually but I realize that the threat to democracy is even worse I can refuse to be intimidated but I can't keep democracy going if people are scared to be whistleblowers and talk to journalists so I know I've got to fight to put an end to this kind of surveillance and this is why I don't
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carry a mobile phone and never have because it's my duty as a citizen it's not so much that I'm concerned they might be listening to me because I don't have that kind of secret very much in my life no it's simply that I think it's everyone's duty to refuse and I'm doing my duty even if others are not yet doing their duty I've got to set an example to try to convince more people to do their
21:03
duty to reject these systems of massive pervasive surveillance if you're using any proprietary software most likely some of it is malware I've already given you examples like Windows Mac OS iOS Android they all have malware in them malware means a program designed to run in a way that hurts the user and those programs are malware but there are a lot
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of other proprietary programs which might or might not be malware and we don't know we're unable to find out the same developers that are tempted to make them malware also prevent us from finding out whether they're malware this is a situation that's a recipe for corruption so of course power corrupts the developers of proprietary software faced this temptation and a lot of them are
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corrupt and the rest we don't know we there are dozens of proprietary programs we know where malware and then there are thousands more where we don't know and we can't find out so every proprietary program is either certain malware or possible malware which means you can never have a rational basis to trust it it's blind faith or nothing shut your eyes and take their risk the only way to have a rational basis to trust a program is if it's free software because then
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the users are checking it from time to time that's the only defense against malware the only known defense it's not perfect because users are not systematically checking everything all the time so we can't guarantee that a free program is malware but at least we've got a fighting chance if you if you use a proprietary program you're basically asking to be taken
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hmm so that's why we developed the GNU plus Linux system why you should escape and come to the free world hmm however you've got to be selective about which janu / linux distro you use good news / linux is basically the new operating system which i started in 1984 plus linux which is the kernel which was combined with goo in 1992 and basically
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it's a free operating system but there are thousands of distros and most of them contain some non free software as you can see up there the red things are non free applications non free drivers whatever and over there you see a distro that's entirely free software there are a few of those look at goo new org / distros for details to find the free distros now when you release a free
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program it's there two different ways actually there are lots but I don't have time to talk about all those details but you can release it under a week license a push over license that doesn't know how to say no things like the apache license or the two different BSD licenses or the two different so-called MIT licenses those are weak licenses they don't know how to say no they say Oh take this code and do whatever you
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like with it and what happens is companies come over and they take that code and they turn it into a proprietary program and use it to impose their power on users and that's bad you shouldn't let them do that because that way your code becomes part of subjugating people you're not the one subjugating them someone else is but you could have refused and the way to do that is with
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copyleft with the gnu general public license or ghannouchi PL which says use this and do whatever you like as long as you respect other people's freedom to the GPL says your you have the freedom to distribute copies with or without modifications but there's a condition about how you distribute those copies you must provide the source code of what you distribute and you must
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provide it under the same license the same canoe general public license and this way you must respect the freedom of other users in the same way that we respected freedom for you you must pass along a code including your changes in editions with the same freedoms that you got from us the idea of copyleft is to actively defend freedom for others because as we know if we just give people all the time the
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option to surrender their freedom and if they get some momentary convenience in exchange for surrendering their freedom modern society and media are really good at pressuring everybody to give up their freedom and the next thing you know there's a society in which nobody has freedom anymore so we need to defend freedom together for each other if you think that there's a problem in using the Ghannouchi PL for
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your code first look at guna org slash licenses and then right to licensing at goon org if you need concrete help and if anybody is telling you reasons why you why you supposedly can't use the GPL lots of people are wrong about what they say about that so contact me if necessary make sure that the reasons they're giving you are not foolish
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imagination Apple is very hostile to the GNU GPL Apple is directly and indirectly trying to pressure people not to defend the users freedom please join us in standing up to Apple now when we use the GPL often the result is that businesses join in and developing the free version since they're not allowed to fork a non free version of the remaining alternatives
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they decide the best thing is to contribute to improving free software and their contributions are welcome mmm now the one other point about this is you may have heard people use the term open-source I never use that term because it was invented for a very specific reason to disconnect the software that's free that we had developed from the ideals of the free
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software movement they like the software they disagreed with our ethical views they wanted to be able to promote the software such that no one would ever hear our ethical views again since then in 1998 I have to go campaigning giving speeches and so on about free software because other otherwise people would only hear from the open source people who would never say these things if you've heard open source advocates talking you know they don't say these
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things well lots of them cite my name and give the impression that I agree with them I've seen articles that called me the father of open-source you know it's enough to make me tear my hair out but after a few seconds I realize there's something constructive I can do so I sent a letter to the editor saying if I'm the fog if father of open-source it was conceived through artificial insemination using stolen sperm without my knowledge or consent
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[Applause] and then I explained what the free-software movement is and what it stands for and say this is what I really stand for that of course is the serious purpose of the letter to the editor but it's fun to start with a joke so which you support is up to you the problem is that most people supported open source and the businesses prefer the term open source because then it wouldn't they
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devoid hinting that there's anything unethical about their proprietary software products and so the mass media started saying open source and generally you don't hear about free livre software in the mass media or the important tech media but you can help change that if you support freedom you can say free Libre software whatever other people do at least you will be making people aware of these ethical issues and that's in
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some sense the easiest way to help us it doesn't take much work it does take persistence when you especially when you're in a discussion with other people who are saying open source if you say this needs to be free software we have to respect users freedom this is not just a question of what's most practically convenient this is a question of our duty to others as citizens in a free society you may not win but even when you don't win you'll help show other people what these ideas
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are and that is advancing the cause whether or not you win one particular issue it's very important the one other point about free software is that schools and governments should only run free software schools when they teach people to use a proprietary program they are implanting dependence on a particular company that's the opposite of the social mission of the school and this applies to all levels from kindergarten to university and to adult
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education educational activities must never teach the use of a proprietary program and technical universities they should teach reverse engineering to help people get the secrets out of proprietary programs so that the free world can implement them so proprietary software is one of the main ways of snooping on people but it's not the only one proprietary software enables them to
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turn your own devices into spies against you and the one way we can basically stop that is by insisting on only free software but that's not the only kind of way that's not the only way to snoop on us it's also done by systems that we work with but don't belong to us like ISPs and phone companies the phone companies record all the text messages you get or receive or send they record or what calls you make although in
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general not what you say but the end these records are kept often for years and then anybody can get those records supposedly they're only available to Big Brother but in fact due to bad design in I think it's a signaling system 7 which is a a system for communication between phone networks anybody who's willing to commit
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a crime can pretend to be another phone network and say hey I'm trying to find number five oh three one oh nine oh four and and get the information about where it has been and what text messages that have look at the text of the text messages and what calls it is made and anything you know the burglar who's interested in whether you're at a town can get that information
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- hmm now we can't directly change those systems because they don't belong to us we have to go through politics to get them changed we have to say to our governments tell don't tell them they have to save data about us tell them they can't save any data about us protect our privacy now governments have a long list of fears that they can stir up in people so
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that people will will give up their own freedom out of panic now one of them is terrorists but governments are much that are when they cease to be democratic or a much bigger danger than terrorists you know I bush ii killed more Americans in war supposedly aimed at al-qaeda then
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the al-qaeda terrorists killed and of course that's only counting the Americans there were also hundreds of thousands of Iraqis that Bush killed by that invasion which who were never really counted [Applause] the way we keep a government safe for us is by democracy and that means stopping the government from tracking us all the time but then there are also the private
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organizations that try to track us it wasn't easy for me to get in here they sent me an announcement saying since you're a speaker download our app and that will be your registration I wrote back saying well you know I don't have anything that that app could run on and anyway it's a proprietary program so I wouldn't have it and they said well we have a website too they said we also
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have a website connect to our website and register I visited their website and the screen appeared blank because it was designed to work entirely through proprietary JavaScript and I have the settings in my browser so it checks the license of the JavaScript code and if it's not free software it doesn't run so I wrote back I was having tremendous fun you see they
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had already bought the airline ticket I had nothing to lose well it would have been a loss for me if I couldn't have spoken to you but by the points I had them over a barrel they had to find another way and they did of course but the point is it's not just to me that they shouldn't do this they shouldn't do this to you either none of you should in fact you shouldn't have to say who you really are to get into an event any
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event it may be they charge money okay pay you should be able to pay anonymously so basically there's been a progression of injustice in computing from proprietary software to web services and the only thing worse than web services is proprietary mobile apps the web service typically requires you
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to run some proprietary JavaScript code on your own machine but beyond that it's collecting lots of data on you that proprietary JavaScript code often includes spying malware you know it may fingerprint the browser trying to figure out who you are if you didn't want to tell it this is all this is nasty treatment of the public the companies that do this deserve to be heaped with criticism and disgust and they also
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deserve to be blocked an ethical website I say runs with JavaScript disabled so that the only data it gets from you is what you choose to give it and people who invite you to an invent shouldn't ask who you are when I see an announcement that says register through Eventbrite I send a message explaining why it's wrong to do that if possible I posted on the same list
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that the announcement was posted on because people have got to stop tolerating being asked for data about themselves but then there are the systems that snoop on us that we have there are other systems that snoop on us for instance there are insurance companies that say you can pay less for insurance if you put our tracking device in your car there are cars that are built with tracking devices in them a
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friend of mine bought a Nissan Leaf and I warn him it may be it may be tracking you he found out that it had a cell phone modem built in he unscrewed it Bravo for him but when the insurance company says you'll have to pay $50 a month if you don't let us track you there's another method we can use to stop that it's called democracy we have to get laws passed saying insurance
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companies can't ask people to reveal data or or have the car collect data outside of a certain limited set I would say collecting data about the pattern of use of the controls of the car and saving it for a period of one minute before a crash that's legitimate and if you don't have a crash they'll never get any data but keeping track of where you
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have been that must be forbidden and by the way be very scared of driverless cars and not for the reason that you've heard they're making a big fuss about what if it should with somebody and what if it has to decide to save this person or that person but those things are going to be so rare that they're insignificant as an issue anyway I expect that if they start letting driverless cars carry people around it'll be because they're very safe
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so let's not worry about that let's the real danger which is that you don't control where it's going now uber is totally unjust because it makes users run a non free app and then identify themselves for these reasons I absolutely refuse to ride in an uber car even if somebody else ran the app and paid for the ride because I don't want
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Ober to succeed its goal of wiping out ordinary taxis that you can call on the street and pay cash too so I don't want to give Ober any tiny bit of success and I hope you'll join me look at Stallman org slash uber dot HTML but when they and there are other reasons for instance I sometimes call the company goober because it pays drivers peanuts
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of course it's going to fire all those drivers once it has driverless cars but it'll still insist on identifying people so here's the danger of that you say I want a car to take me to the theater the car comes up you get in and it says hello mr. dissident and the doors are locked and it drives you to the secret police headquarters you can't control that and this points out the Forgotten
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danger of AI there is a lot of discussion of whether AI is safe focusing on the question of whether it might ought anima Slee do things that are that destroy humanity and so people talk about how do we make sure that the AI is under the control of humans well that's I agree that's the first requisite but then you've got to ask which humans is it under the control of and can you trust them so just because
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the AI won't go totally rogue and wipe out humanity that doesn't mean it's not bad that doesn't mean we can trust it if the AI is controlled by Google it will be that at any time at any time we deal with it it will be spying on us collecting data about us it's not enough to insist that the AI has to be under some humans control if before you start dealing with it you've got to ask
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whether it's under your control when dealing with you and with the voice response systems that exist today that's not so a computer with a microphone that talks to some sort of a speech understanding system that's remote that's on somebody else's server you can't trust that I was once visiting a house where there was an Alexa device
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and it was in a room that I spent a lot of time sitting in and working in so I unplugged it I figured that way it wouldn't be listening to my conversations those things are very dangerous and we shouldn't get used to them because even if most of the time it only listens when you say Alexa it can be changed remotely to listen to you all
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the time and then of course there are the systems that exist only to snoop on people and track people like cameras in the street that recognize car license plates and track cars everywhere and they record every car that goes by for our privacy sake we have to pass laws requiring those systems to be modified so that they only notice a a license
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plate if it's either invalid or in a list of plates that are subject to specific court orders everyone else who is not B not wanted for arrest it will just the camera just shouldn't see those cars it should only see the cars it has some legitimate reason to see and that way the system will do some good and it won't do harm what about cameras in the
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street to recognize people's faces or the backs of their heads but those are extremely dangerous too we have to distinguish between security cameras and surveillance cameras a security camera records locally and the recording gets overwritten after a few weeks and if there's a crime you go there and you take the recording and you use it an otherwise it just goes gets overwritten but if you but a once the camera is
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connected to any kind of transmission to any other place then it starts being dangerous because it enables massive surveillance so it's really important to prohibit surveillance cameras only security cameras should be allowed I've got a series of proposals for how to make certain systems safe in terms of not exposing us to massive data collection and the list of them is in Ghana org
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slash philosophy slash surveillance vs democracy dot html' oh and I should also mention we need to make our payments anonymously we have developed something called goo taller that's tal er which is an anonymous payment system it's not a currency the payments are denominated in some official currency but the point is
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they're anonymous for the one who pays but they are not anonymous for the one who receives the payment the store so the store can take can take payment from customers and no one can tell who the customers were who paid but the store in order to convert these payments into money has to take them to a particular entity in turn cash them in and thus the amount that each store received is established we designed it this way
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because we do not want it to help tax evasion but we do want people's purchases to be anonymous now you put this together with some sort of system where a whole bunch of local stores will receive a package for you with a code and you just go there with the code and collect it and you don't have to show an ID because you've got the code this will make it possible to do anonymous purchases even for physical goods but when it comes to something that's not
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physical like paying toll or paying for a download that's straightforward as long as you're doing the other things to maintain your anonymity like going through tour making sure you you don't log in that your browser isn't finger printable you know things like this you'll get anonymous browsing even when you have to pay for it now I don't care if I see an ad on the screen I'm very good at ignoring it but I hate tracking
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so I've done things in my browser that saved me from being tracked they also block the ads which for me is a secondary point but I'm willing to go to great lengths to avoid surveillance and that means that it when a periodical says the only way to see our articles is either see the ads and be tracked or subscribe and be tracked I say it's off-limits to me I can't look there but I'd pay if I could pay
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anonymously I'd pay to see the articles I want to see that's what we've got to insist on we've got to make sure that we have a society in which data is not being massively collected about us because data once collected will be misused it can be misused by the organization that collected it it can be misused by rogue employees of that organization it can be stolen in a data
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breach and then misused by others or it can be taken by the state and misused by the state which is the biggest danger of all and we have to stop all those things from happening and the way is don't let the data be collected

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