Journey Through The Universe - HD Documentary

Journey Through The Universe - HD Documentary

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00:00
down there life continues the traffic is awful stocks go on trading and Star Trek is still showing when we return home if we return home will it be the same will we be the same we have to leave all this behind to dip
00:39
our toes into the vast dark ocean on to the moon [Music] dozens of astronauts have come this way before us 12 walked on the moon itself
01:27
just a quarter of a million miles from home three days by spacecraft baron desolate it's like a deserted battlefield but oddly familiar so close we've barely left home Neil Armstrong's first footprints looks like they were made yesterday there's no
02:13
air to change them they could survive for millions of years maybe longer than us our time is limited we need to take our own giant leave 1 million miles 5 million 20 million miles were far beyond where any human has ever ventured out of the darkness a friendly face the goddess
02:51
of love Venus the morning star the evening star she can welcome the new day in the east say good night in the West a sister to our planet she's about the same size and gravity as Earth we should be safe here but the Venus Express space probe is setting off
03:31
alarms it's telling us these dazzling clouds they're made of deadly sulfuric acid the atmosphere is choking with carbon dioxide [Applause] never expected this Venus is one angry goddess the air is noxious pressure unbearable and it's hot approaching 900 degrees stick around and we be corroded suffocated crushed and baked
04:15
nothing can survive here not even this is Soviet robotic probe it's heavy armors been trashed by the extreme atmosphere so lovely from Earth up close this goddess is hideous she's the sister from hell pockmarked by thousands of volcanoes all that carbon dioxide is trapping the sun's heat Venus is burning up its global warming gone wild before it took hold
05:14
maybe Venus was beautiful calm more like her sister planet Earth so this could be Earth's future where are the twinkling stars the beautiful spheres gliding through space maybe we shouldn't be out here maybe we should turn back but there's something about the Sun something hypnotic like the Medusa too terrible to look at too powerful to resist luring us onwards on like a moth
05:49
to a flame [Music] wait there's something else obscured by the Sun it must be mercury get too close to the Sun this is what happens temperatures swing wildly here that night it's minus 275 degrees come midday it's 800 plus burnt then
06:20
frozen the messenger space probe is telling us something strange for its size mercury has a powerful gravitational pull it's a huge ball of iron covered with a thin veneer of rock the core of what was once a much larger planet so where's the rest of it maybe a stray planet slammed into mercury blasting away its outer layers
06:54
in a deadly game of cosmic pinball whole worlds on the loose careening wildly across the cosmos destroying anything in their path and a we're in the middle of it vulnerable exposed small everything is telling us to turn back but who could defy this the Sun in all its mesmerizing splendor our light our lives everything we do is
07:33
controlled by the Sun depends on it it's the Greek god Helios driving his chariot across the sky the Egyptian god rah reborn every day the summer solstice Sun rising at Stonehenge for millions of years this was as close as a god to staring into the face of God [Music]
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it's so far away if it burned out we wouldn't know about it for eight minutes it's so big you could fit 1 million Earth's inside it [Music] but who needs numbers without the real thing [Music] we see it every day a familiar face in our sky now up close it's unrecognizable the turbulent sea of incandescent gas
08:56
the thermometer pushes ten thousand degrees can't imagine how hot the core is could be tens of millions of degrees hot enough to transform millions of tons of matter into energy every second more than all the energy ever made by mankind dwarfing the power of all the nuclear weapons on earth back home we use this energy for light and heat but up close there's nothing comforting
09:43
about the Sun it's electrical and magnetic forces erupt in giant molten gas loops some are larger than a dozen Earth's more powerful than 10 million volcanoes when they burst through they expose cooler layers below sunspots a fraction cooler than their surroundings sunspots look black but they're hotter than anything on earth
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and massive of the 20 times the size of her but one day all this will stop the sun's fuel will be spent and when it dies the earth will follow this guard it creates life destroys it and demands we keep our distance
11:18
[Music] this comet straight too close the sun's heat is boiling it away creating a tail that stretches for millions of miles [Music] it's freezing in here there's no doubt where this comets from the icy wastes of deep space but all the steam geysers have dust
12:02
it's the Sun again melting the Comets of frozen heart strange a kind of vast dirty snowball covered in grime eat our tiny grains what looks like organic material preserved on ice since who knows when maybe even the beginning of the solar system say a comment like this crashed into the young earth billions of years ago maybe a delivered of organic material and water the raw ingredients of life it
12:39
may even have sown the seeds of life on earth that evolved into you and me but save crashed into the earth now think of the dinosaurs wiped out by a comet or asteroid strike it's only a question of time eventually one day will go the way of the dinosaurs
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if life on earth was wiped out we'd be stuck out here homeless the drift in a hostile universe we need to find another home among the millions billions of planets there must be one that's not too hard not too cold with air sunlight water we're like Goldilocks we could comfortably live the Red Planet
13:51
unmistakably Mars for centuries we've looked to Mars for company for signs of life could there be extraterrestrial life here I'll be ready to rewrite the history books to tear up the science books to turn our world upside down what happens next could change everything Mars is the planet that most captures our imagination think of b-movies sci-fi
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comics what follows Martians it's all just fiction right but what if there really is something here hard to imagine though up close this is a dead planet the activity that makes the earth livable shut down millions of years ago here red and dead Mars is a giant fossil wait something is alive a dust devil a
15:23
big one bigger than the biggest twisters back home there's wind here and where there's wind there's air could that air sustain extraterrestrial life it's too thin for us to breathe and there's no ozone layer nothing to protect us against the sun's ultraviolet rays there is water but frigid temperatures keep it in a constant deep
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freeze it's hard to believe anything could live here back on earth of there are creatures that survive in extreme cold heat even in the deepest ocean trenches it's as though life is a virus it adapts spreads maybe that's what we're doing right now carrying the virus of life across the universe even in the most extreme
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conditions life usually finds a way but on a dead planet with no way to replenish its soil no heat to melt it's frozen order [Music] all this dust it's hard to see where we're going [Music] Olympus Mons named after the home of the Greek gods a vast ancient volcano three times higher than Everest there's no
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sign of activity since its discovery in the 1970s it's been declared extinct hang on these look like lava flows but any sign of lava should be long gone obliterated by meteorite craters unless this monster isn't dead just sleeping there could be magma flowing beneath the crust right now building up waiting to be unleashed volcanic activity could be melting
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frozen water in the soil pumping gases into the atmosphere recycling minerals and nutrients creating all the conditions needed for life this makes the Grand Canyon look like a crack in the sidewalk endless desolation so fast it would stretch all the way across North America but here signs of activity erosion and
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what looks like dried up riverbeds may be volcanic activity melted ice in the soil sending water gushing through this Canyon underground volcanoes could still be melting ice creating water and where there's water that could be life the hunt for life is spearheaded by this humble fellow the NASA rover Opportunity it's finding evidence that these barren Plains were once ancient lakes or oceans
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that could have harbored life [Music] look at those gullies probes orbiting Mars keep spotting new ones more proof that Mars is alive and kicking that
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water is flowing beneath its surface right now water that could be sustaining Martian life [Music] now what we have to do is find it [Music] maybe we've already found what we're looking for on earth some think that life started here and then migrated to earth an asteroid impact could have
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blasted fragments of Mars complete with tiny microbes out into space and on to the young earth where they sowed the seeds of life no wonder we find Mars fascinating this could be our ancestral home it could be we are all Martians the Mars we thought we knew is gone replaced by this new active changing planet and if we don't know Mars our
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next door neighbor how can we imagine what surprises lie ahead our compass points across the cosmos back in time 14 billion years to the moment of creation [Music] this is getting scary it's like being inside a giant video game
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these are all two-wheel asteroids some of them hundreds of miles wide this one must be about 20 miles long and they're perched on it a space probe can't have been easy parking on an asteroid traveling at 50,000 miles an hour it's a lot of effort just to investigate some rubble rubble that regularly collides breaks up and rains down on earth as meteorites our
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ancestors saw shooting stars as magical almonds and they were right rubble like this came together to make the planets including our own pretty magical by dating the meteorites found on earth we can tell the planets were born 4.6 billion years ago these are the birth certificates of our solar system for some reason these rocks didn't form into a planet
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something must have stopped them something powerful [Music] Jupiter what a monster at least a thousand times bigger than Earth so vast you could fit all the other planets inside it something this massive dominates its neighbors its gravity is pulling the asteroids apart and it's breathtaking but this beauty is a beast it's almost all gasp land here have
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wheat sink straight through its layers into oblivion at Jupiter's good looks the product of ferocious violence it's spinning at an incredible rate whipping up winds to hundreds of miles an hour contorting the clouds into stripes Eddie's whirlpools and this the
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legendary Great Red Spot the biggest most violent storm in the solar system at least three times the size of Earth it's been raging for over 300 years all these churning clouds must have sparked an electrical storm just one boat is 10,000 times more intense than any at home looks like the safest place to see Jupiter is from a distance up there at
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the polls those dancing lights they like the Aurora's back home but the Geiger counter is going wild even these are deadly generated by lethal radiation about here nothing is what it seems the universe is full of terrors traps maybe this is a safe haven the multicolored moon Io [Music] wrong very wrong those brilliant colors are molten rock volcanoes spewing lava
26:27
our journey across the universe is turning into a struggle for survival we've got to hope that if we outlast the dangers we'll be rewarded by wonders beyond imagination [Music] 400 million miles from Earth flying the commercial airliner here would take nearly a century looking place and yet strangely familiar a bit like the Arctic with all that ice
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for those ridges and cracks it's Jupiter's moon Europa and maybe like the Arctic this ice is floating on water liquid water but we're half a billion miles from the Sun surely Europa is frozen solid unless Jupiter's gravity is creating friction deep inside heating the ice into water allowing life to develop in the waters beneath its frozen crust we
27:56
might be feet away from aliens from a whole ecosystem of microbes crustaceans maybe even squid the only thing between us and the possibility of alien life this layer of ice but until we send a spacecraft to drill here Europa's secrets will remain beyond reach [Music] it's captivated our imaginations haunted
28:43
our dreams and here it is spinning before our eyes Saturn named for the Roman God who reigned over a golden age of peace and harmony [Music] this planet's a giant ball of gas so light it would float on water it's spectacular rings would stretch almost from earth to the moon [Music] there's the Cassini orbiter it's picking
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up ghostly radio Commission's probably generated by Aurora's around Saturn's poles this is the real music of the spheres [Laughter] Cassini's telling us where these rings came from they're the remnants of a moon shattered by Saturn's gravitational pole incomparable beauty from total destruction billions of shards of ice some as small as ice cubes others the size of houses
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they collide break apart reassemble it's like a snapshot of our early solar system as dust and gas orbited the newly-born Sun and gravity worked it's magic pulling the lumps together until from space trashed like this our home emerged we could stay here forever [Music] but there's so much further to go so much more to see but this moon wrapped in thick clouds
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tightly [Music] [Music] there's an atmosphere down here there's wind rain even seasons rivers lakes and oceans it looks so familiar so similar to earth but that's not water it's liquid natural gas hundreds of times more natural gas than all the Earth's oil and gas
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reserves maybe one day we'll use this energy to fuel a colony assuming there is a life here already the Huygens space probe is here to find out it's telling us there's organic material in the soil but it's so cold minus 300 degrees there's no way life could develop unless
32:40
Titan warms up the Sun is supposed to get hotter when it does maybe life will spring up here just like it did on earth and as the earth gets too hot for us maybe we'll move to Titan one day we might call this distant land home [Music] home where at least 700 million miles away now after this we lose visual contact with earth we're standing on a
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cliff looking out over a great chasm that stretches to the beginning of time do we have the courage to jump we're in the solar system's outer reaches unseen from earth unknown for most of history it's like diving into the depths of the ocean [Music] [Music] those rings make it look like Uranus has
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been tilted off its axis toppled over by a stray planet it's eerie out here already beginning to feel small lonely maybe this is how we'll feel at the edge of the universe but we've barely left the shore if the solar system was one mile wide so far we've traveled about three inches out of the deep the leather strange beasts the god of the sea
35:01
Neptune this world is covered in methane gas and a storm as big as Earth whipped up by savage a thousand mile an hour winds back home it's the Sun that drives the wind but Neptune's far away something else must be creating these ferocious winds we know very little about our own solar system after all those balls of gas a solid
35:52
moon triping solid but not stable just look at those geysers cosmic smokestacks pumping out strange soot and this moon is revolving around Neptune in the opposite direction of the planets spin a cosmic battle of wills that this angry moon is destined to lose Neptune's massive gravity is pulling on
36:31
Triton slowing it down reeling it in one day it will be ripped apart by Neptune and that's it no more moons no more planets in our solar system it's getting colder we're getting further from the Sun slipping from the grip of its gravitational tentacles but this isn't a void it's teeming with frozen rocks like Pluto until recently
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we thought Pluto was alone beyond it nothing they were wrong more frozen world's discovery so new nobody can agree what to call them plutinos ice Dwarfs qb1 owes our solar system is far more chaotic and strange than we had imagined now we're eight billion miles from home
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the most distant thing ever seen that orbits the Sun another small icy world Sedna discovered in 2003 its orbit takes ten thousand years to complete [Music] hang on there's something else out here ten billion miles from home the space probe Voyager one this bundle of aluminium and antenna
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give us close-up views of the giant planets and discovered many of their strange moons it's traveling 20 times faster than a bullet sending messages home that gold plaque it's a kind of intergalactic message in a bottle a greeting recorded in different
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languages and a map showing how to find our home solar system the great physicist Stephen Hawking thinks it was a mistake to roll out the welcome mat after all if you're in the jungle is it wise to call out these comets look like the ones we saw earlier there's a theory that the raw materials for life began out hiris until
39:44
something dislodged it sending it hurtling towards the earth and seeing all this ice maybe comets carried water to earth to the water in the oceans in your body all from this distant celestial ice machine [Music] we're 5 million million that's 5 trillion miles from home but this is still only a baby step ahead trillions
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of miles billions of stars time to stop looking back and start looking ahead to step out into the big wide universe [Music] interstellar space [Music] billions of stars like our own Sun many with planets many of those with moons
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[Music] it's hard to know which way to go there are infinite possibilities we're going to need a serious burst of acceleration [Music] 25 trillion miles from home a 150,000 year ride in the Space Shuttle we've only just reached the first solar system beyond our own Alpha Centauri not one
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but three stars spinning around each other locked in a celestial standoff each stars gravity attracting the other their blazing orbital speed keeping them apart get between them and we'd be vaporized trillions of miles from home so far that miles are becoming meaningless out here we measure in lightyears light travels six trillion miles a year so we are over four light-years from
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home distances so fast they're mind-boggling [Music] who knows what strange forces lie ahead or we'll discover when if we reach the edge of the universe 10 light-years from Earth the star epsilon a written I
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spectacular rings of dust and ice and somewhere in there planets forming out of the debris being born before our eyes [Music] asteroids comets everywhere we can almost be looking at our own solar system billions of years ago with comets delivering the building blocks of life to these young planets
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[Music] [Music] at the center of all the action a star smaller than our Sun still in its infancy any life in this solar system would be primitive at best there must be more mature solar systems out here but finding them is like looking for a needle in a cosmic haystack 20 light-years from Earth star Gliese
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581 it's about the same age as our son this planet is just the right distance from its Sun any closer and water would boil away any further and it would freeze ideal conditions for life to emerge and if a comet has struck delivering water and organic materials than life complex beings like us even civilizations like our own could be down
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there right now they could be tuning into our TV signals watching shows from 20 years ago [Music] [Applause] but until we devise a way of communicating over these vast distances all we can do is speculate thus and them living parallel lives unaware of each other's existence [Music]
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unless life has come and gone that's the problem with comets their creators and destroyers as the dinosaurs found out the hard way this is the needle in the cosmic haystack the closest we've come to a habitable solar system like our own but it's a chance encounter there could
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be hundreds millions more solar systems like this out there or not at all some of the atmosphere on this planet Bellerophon is being boiled away by its nearby star from earth we can't see planets this far out there obscured by the brilliance of their neighboring stars but the planets have a minut gravitational pull on those stars measure these tiny movements and we can
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prove they exist that's how we track down Bellerophon in the 1990s and hundreds of other distant planets 65 light-years from Earth turn on your TV here and you'd pick up Hitler's Berlin Olympics [Music] the twin stars of alcohol known to the
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ancients is the demon star from Earth it appears to blink as one star passes across the other up-close it's even stranger one star is being sucked towards the other almost 100 light-years from home faint whispers from one of the first ever radio broadcasts [Music]
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from here on out it's as if the earth never existed feels like a lifetime since we stood on that beach looking up at the sky wondering where and how we fit in we've learned one thing for sure the universe is too bizarre - startling for us to guess what lies ahead deep inside our galaxy the Milky Way
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pinpricks of light that have inspired a thousand and one tales the Seven Sisters the daughters of the ancient Greek god atlas transformed into stars to comfort their father as he held the heavens on his shoulders [Music] in this giant Betelgeuse the brightest biggest star we've seen so far six
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hundred times wider than our Sun [Music] but this it's not a star not a planet not like anything we've seen [Music] a ghostly specter more than 1300 light-years from Earth Orion's dark cloud [Music] dust and gas shrouding us
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[Music] [Music] they're deep inside a light pulling the dust and gas towards it heating up merging into a ball of burning hot gas like a star like our Sun in miniature inside it's millions of degrees so hot it's beginning to trigger nuclear reactions the kind that keep our sun shining making energy radiation
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light a star is being born [Music] Orion's dark cloud is a vast star Factory we're witnessing the birth of the future universe [Music] we've come to expect a destruction but this is one of the universe's greatest acts of creation star birth [Music] this doesn't look right
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jets of gas exploding out with tremendous force blasting dust and gas out for millions of miles it's unbelievably violent and creative nebula vast glowing clouds of gas hanging in space with no wind out here they'll take thousands of years to disperse they seemed to be forming a vast stellar sculpture nature is more
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than a scientist an engineer it's an artist on the grandest of scales [Music] and this is a masterpiece [Music] stars are born grow up and then then what do they die do they slip quietly
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into the night or go out with a bang [Music] somewhere between here and the edge of the universe lies the answer luminous clouds suspended in space encircling what was once a star like our own Sun all that's left of it are these brightly colored gases elements formed by nuclear reactions deep inside released into space on its death green
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and violet hydrogen and helium the raw materials of the universe red and blue nitrogen and oxygen the building blocks of life on earth for us to live stars like this had to die every atom in our body was produced by nuclear fusion in stars that died long before the earth was even born we are
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all the stuff of stars our family tree begins here [Music] at its heart the ghost of a star a white dwarf white-hot small but unbelievably dense in the stars dying moments it's atoms fused and squeezed together making it so dense that just a
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teaspoon of this white dwarf would weigh one ton it's a chilling premonition of our son's fate six billion years from now it'll become a white dwarf its death will herald the end of life on Earth makes you wonder how many other worlds have come and gone celestial stories left untold lost forever
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but the greatest story of them all is still to be told we must go back through time to the very first chapter to learn how the universe began the scattered remains of a dead star the Crab Nebula 6,000 light-years from home deep inside a stellar graveyard we've learned so
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much seeing things we'd never have believed possible now sites like this wonders once beyond imagination we take in our stride we're ready to face whatever lies ahead determined to reach the edge of the universe this is the calm after the storm after a massive
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explosion a supernova that turned a star into dust and gas the eye of the storm a spinning pulsating star a pulsar gravity has squeezed the giant Stars core down to this it's just 12 miles across unimaginably dense one pinhead of this would weigh hundreds maybe millions of tons and as it shrank like a figure skater spinning
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on the spot arms outstretched then pulling them in it began to spin faster two beams of light energy radiation spinning 30 times a second powering the huge cloud of dust and gas there's so much radiation here more even than on the Sun that was easily the deadliest thing we've encountered so far once it would have terrified us now we realize it without the dangers
01:00:31
there be no wonders without the nightmares there be no dreams [Music] getting a strange sensation a feeling as though there's something bad out here a malevolent presence one thing we didn't want to encounter impossibly black blotting out the stars behind it we're staring into the face of extinction
01:01:17
the remains of a giant star a black hole [Music] far denser than a pulsar and impossible to resist it's gravity is so intense not even light can escape this asteroid it's a lump of solid rock but it's actually stretching being dragged towards the gaping hole inside there's no matter as we know it in time no space all the rules of physics
01:02:11
collapse [Music] the asteroid is gone nobody really knows where this is the edge of human understanding there could be millions of black holes creeping around our galaxy more perhaps than all the stars in the sky but we wouldn't see them until it was too late like this star spiraling
01:02:55
disappearing down an invisible sinkhole who's to say we don't live inside a vast black hole that the whole universe is an inside one right now inside another universe think about it for too long and your mind reels [Music] sometimes it feels like the more we see the less we know [Music] and we're still in our own galaxy the
01:03:29
Milky Way the vastness of the universe beyond still lies ahead the wonders the dangers the secrets they're out there waiting to be discovered [Music]
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7,000 light years from home [Music] it's as though we're in a forest thick with trees each so beautiful so fascinating it's impossible to look beyond to see the bigger picture we have to find a way through to reach the clearing at the galaxy's edge but faced with sites like this it's hard to leave colossal glowing cloud topped
01:04:44
by these great towers of dust the pillars of creation like a gateway into the unknown a star factory packed with embryonic star systems each larger than our solar system [Music] they have to resist its siren song tear ourselves away to carry on towards the edge of the galaxy [Music] dazzled by the milky way's beauty
01:05:42
we've been blinded to its terrors and strayed into a cosmic minefield like an explosion in slow motion a massive star millions of times brighter than our Sun it's going into meltdown the fuel that sustains it is running out the nuclear reactions that power it winding down we're watching its death throes [Music]
01:06:19
[Music] an even bigger dangerously unstable star but this one's about to explode and when a star this big dies it's a hundred times more violent than a supernova we've stumbled into the most violent star death of all a hypernova the cores collapsed it's becoming a
01:07:08
black hole and that's the shockwave surging through the star ripping its outer layers into space [Music] [Music] deadly hyper Nova's frozen comets scorched planets white dwarves red giants tiny drops in a vast pool of white light
01:08:03
our home galaxy the Milky Way [Music] we wanted to know where we fit in here's our answer civilizations past and present everyone that's ever lived the smallest bug the highest mountain all of it invisible not even a tiny speck
01:08:37
[Music] our home is a minor planet orbiting an insignificant star if it disappeared right now who would even notice and yet so far we found nowhere else we would rather live nowhere we could live it's only now far from home that were beginning to truly appreciate it
01:09:08
[Music] look at all these stars hundreds of thousands of them [Music] surely one of them more than one must be capable of supporting life [Music] maybe here in this swarm of stars the
01:09:57
great cluster back in the 1970s astronomers sent a message in this direction detailing the structure of our DNA and our solar system's location but the message won't arrive here for another 25,000 years [Music] we haven't found alien life yet but neither have we found any reason to believe it isn't out there somewhere
01:10:30
there's an equation devised to estimate the number of other advanced civilizations the result is startling there could be millions of civilizations just in our own galaxy [Music] everything we've seen so far is inside the Milky Way now we're ready to leave our home galaxy to enter intergalactic space here's our
01:11:18
chance to solve the ultimate mystery and experience the moment of creation [Music] beyond the Milky Way through the vast expanse between galaxies against all the odds we've made it to intergalactic space out here there's no horizon in sight even the closest galaxies are hundreds of thousands of light-years away the
01:12:11
remains of galaxies ripped apart by the Milky Way's huge gravitational pull scattered among nothing this is as close as the universe gets to a perfect vacuum but even this isn't totally empty there are thin wisps of gas find traces of dust and something else dark matter so mysterious we can't see it feel it
01:12:46
taste it touch it or even measure it it's so common it could make up over 90% of all the matter in the universe if dark matter does exist it means there's no such thing as empty space even out here we're surrounded by matter we think it exists because of its apparent hold on galaxies like this one the Large Magellanic Cloud a six billion year journey in today's
01:13:24
fastest spacecraft 160,000 light years from the Milky Way at the edge of its gravitational reach this galaxy should spin off into space but something is holding it here something invisible powerful dark matter stars clusters of stars nebulae it's a vast astronomical treasure trove look at this it's like a string of gleaming pearls
01:14:05
it's a fireball expanding out from what must have been a massive explosion a supernova so bright that when light from the explosion reached earth twenty years ago it was visible to the naked eye and so violent it triggered a string of nuclear reactions forcing atoms together creating new elements gold silver platinum blasting the mountains of space
01:14:37
[Music] the gold in the ring on your finger was forged in a massive supernova like this trillions of miles away the billions of years ago before we left home the universe seemed separate something out there up in the sky but now we know better we are the universe and it is
01:15:08
within us it's comforting to remember as we venture through this abyss further and further faster and faster the andromeda galaxy two and a half million light-years away it's racing through space everything
01:15:50
blown apart like shrapnel in an explosion we're seeing in this galaxy as it was when our ape-like ancestors first walked on the African plains further through space and further back in time hold on this doesn't look right a whole galaxy exploding the only thing large enough to cause an explosion on this scam is another galaxy
01:16:34
it looks like the end of the world but this galaxy won't die it'll be reborn a new shape perhaps even new stars as dust and gas collide creating friction shockwaves triggering the birth of stars there's order in this chaos a pattern behind the infinite variety an endless cycle of birth and death creation and destruction it's a pattern
01:17:16
woven through the vast fabric of space that binds each of these galaxies there are billions of galaxies each with billions even trillions of stars maybe more stars than there are grains of sand on all the beaches on earth [Music] they're finally beginning to see the big picture and it's grander than we ever imagined
01:17:54
this galaxy the huge pinwheel galaxy is so far from Earth that if we send a message home now it will take 27 million years to get there who knows whether our species our planet will still be around to receive it [Music] travel home back from time past the point where the dinosaurs were wiped out past the moment where the first
01:18:38
creatures crawled onto land two billion light-years from home closing in on the edge of the universe going back to the beginning of time this isn't a galaxy it's brighter than a hundred galaxies a blinding beam of energy surging for
01:19:12
trillions of miles something this big this bright must be incredibly powerful experience tells us out here powered equals danger it looks like a quasar a devious thing the universe [Music] our journey could be over the deadliest most powerful thing in the universe boys are a swirling cauldron of
01:20:01
superheated gas [Music] this beast has a heart of darkness a supermassive black hole as heavy as a billion suns [Music] [Music] it's ripping apart whole stars devouring them until they're nothing lost forever from the visible universe we think we hope we pray we've seen the worst of the universe confronted us but
01:21:10
no one can know what lies ahead [Music] we'll need to go further go faster eight billion light-years from home more galaxies but these look different ragged small close together we're so far back in time we're seeing these galaxies as they were before the earth was born they're still young still growing
01:22:13
we're getting close to where and how it all began [Music] look at the galaxies now the more like primitive plankton floating in a vast dark ocean clouds of dust and gas dancing twirling merging to make embryonic galaxies [Music] [Music]
01:23:17
they're disappearing [Music] we've gone back before the stars were born into a cosmic Dark Age and before that light the afterglow from the massive explosion that created the known universe [Music] this is it we've made it the edge of the universe
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eighty billion trillion miles from home thirteen and a half billion years ago the very instant of the Big Bang the most violent most creative moment in history everything that's ever happened follows from this moment every religion every culture has pondered it but we still don't know what sparked this act of creation or why
01:25:01
this is where our journey ends and the universe begins and infinitely hot small dense point erupts [Music] creating space time matter our universe itself first it's the size of a subatomic particle the tiniest fraction of a second later it's big enough to hold in the palm of your hand moments later it's the size of the earth
01:26:08
today the light from the Big Bang is still spreading out you can hear it as a radio hiss [Music] see it as television static [Music] all the wonders we've seen on our journey are sparks flying out from the Big Bang galaxies stars planets all
01:26:48
cosmic debris we go forward through time riding the blast wave until we reach another cooling cinder swirling in the afterglow of the Big Bang we're back where we started home only now can we really know it smaller more fragile than we ever
01:27:42
imagined destined to die swallowed by a dying Sun but we shouldn't despair we should rejoice we've managed to experience the wonders of the universe we should celebrate our achievements and enjoy our moment in the Sun [Music]

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