HIST& 147 - Election of 1800

HIST& 147 - Election of 1800

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00:00
so what you should be aware of with this module of course is the election of 1800 how it unfolds and then the repercussions of it and so we'll briefly look at the election itself as described in the reading of course the two main candidates are john adams who's the current president and thomas jefferson who's representing the democratic republicans and certainly as we saw in the previous module during adam's presidency there's a number of things that happened
00:32
that are quite controversial and so what this means is is for the first time the democratic republicans are poised to win the presidential election and so when we look at the electoral college votes themselves jefferson does get more votes than john adams 73 to 65 but also note that jefferson's running mate aaron burr who's representing the democratic republicans also gets the same number of votes as jefferson
01:03
and so technically there's a tie between jefferson and burr now it's stipulated in the constitution at this point in time is that if there is a tie between two candidates the election will be decided by the house of representatives so the vote will now go to the house of representatives where the members of each state would vote as a block so for example all the members of new york would get together and they would have one vote all the members of virginia
01:34
would get together they would have one vote and so the members of each state would blow would vote as a block currently at this point in time there are 16 states in the country so three states have joined since the original 13 vermont kentucky and tennessee so with 16 states what that means is the majority of votes necessary in the house of representatives vote would now be 9 out of 16. so the question then is who's going to
02:04
win this runoff election in the house of representatives is it going to be jefferson or burr who are currently tied so what happens of course and this is where it gets a little complicated is the federalists are worried about the repercussions of the democratic republicans winning they're worried of course that they don't know how much uh the democratic republicans are trying to are going to try to dismantle the constitution they've typically been
02:35
anti-federalists so the federalists themselves are worried about what might happen to the constitution and this whole system of government that they've set up and that's been in place in 12 years so because the federalists control a number of the states in in terms of the house of representatives when it comes time to vote in the house for either jefferson or burr a number of the states controlled by the federalists end up
03:06
submitting blank ballots and so when the votes are cast it means that neither jefferson nor burr are going to get nine votes so nobody's going to be president so then they vote again and the same thing happens a couple of the states issue blank ballots so neither jefferson nor burr is going to be president so they vote a third time the same thing happens they vote a fourth time the same thing happens they do this 35 times
03:38
and in each case at least one of the states has submitted a blank ballot and so it means neither is going to be president and then finally on the 36th vote uh there's a a relenting of this deadlock by the federalists and jefferson ends up getting more votes than burr he ends up getting more than nine votes so jefferson is going to become the president and burr will become the vice president
04:08
and part of what breaks this deadlock is jefferson himself assures especially alexander hamilton as representing the federalists that if he were to become president and they vote for him he will not dismantle the constitution he will not dismantle the federalist system that the federalists have built and so hamilton although he's he's been at odds with jefferson uh politically up to this point in time he and burr especially do not get along uh so in the
04:40
end hamilton is able to convince the other federalists to vote for jefferson so jefferson becomes the president and then of course a few of you know this this animosity is going to build between aaron burr and alexander hamilton and eventually in 1804 aaron burr and alexander hamilton are going to be involved in a duel and burr ends up killing hamilton now what are the other more significant effects of the of the election of 1800 of course you
05:12
dealt with jefferson's inaugural address once he becomes president where he does seem to be noting that he's not going to dismantle the constitution or the federalist system he's definitely describing himself as a democratic republican but he's not going to dismantle the constitution as it is so it's it's his it's his way to placate uh uh the federalists one of the other things that happens is
05:45
is the federalists of course are still a little worried about this and the supreme court uh is consisting at this point mostly a federalist because it's it's been they've been appointed by the federalist presidents and the the chief justice of the supreme court at this point in time is john marshall and he's going to deliver a very significant ruling on a supreme court case known as marbury versus madison in 1803 and without getting into the details of the case the gist of it
06:16
and and the the significant of its the significance of it is that marshall rules um and writes in his ruling that the constitution of course is the supreme law of the land and this is a phrase in the constitution itself what that means of course is is nothing can be superior no other law can be superior to the constitution and so what what marshall suggests then in his ruling is that what this means is congress cannot
06:47
cannot pass laws that contradict the constitution um and it's the duty of the supreme court he says to then rule on the constitutionality of any laws passed by congress and so if congress were to pass laws that are repugnant to the constitution or against the constitution or contrary to the constitution those laws would be void and so this is essentially the ruling that john marshall hands down is congress any congress
07:19
cannot pass laws that are contrary to the constitution and that it's the duty at the supreme court to then oversee the constitutionally of the constitutionality of congressional laws that are passed and this concept becomes known as judicial review and so this is the importance of this supreme court case then is it's the establishment of this concept that becomes known as judicial review that is still in place today it's still
07:50
understood that this is the duty of the supreme court to rule on the constitutionality of congressional laws and then the other major repercussion that comes out of the election of 1800 is people realize that because we're now moving into this political party system that the framers of the constitution didn't anticipate what this means now is we had is if we have two political parties
08:20
and electoral college members are voting for two people they're always going to vote for either democratic republicans or federalists and so it means that potentially every election after this could be a tie and so the way that they get around this is they they recognize we're going to have to make an amendment to the constitution to change how the voting process is happening and so this is what's going to become the 12th amendment to the constitution
08:50
that gets gets officially ratified in 1804 and so what this stipulates is that now when electoral college members vote they now must differentiate between voting for president and vice president so in other words they're not simply writing down two names that they want to be president but they're stipulating here's who i vote for president here's who i vote to be vice president and so now whoever gets the most votes specifically for president will become president whoever
09:21
gets the most votes votes specifically for vice president will become vice president and of course this is how it it still works today that when the electoral college members vote they still write down two names but one specifically as for president and one specifically is for vice president and so this is their solution for making sure that every election afterwards is not going to end up in a tie and so hopefully uh this all makes sense
09:51
to you if you do have questions of clarification about the election itself or these uh consequences or repercussions or want any more uh details feel free to post any questions in the following discussion board with this module

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