The Unknowns: Mystifying UFO Cases

The Unknowns: Mystifying UFO Cases

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Language: English

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00:01
[Music] I've never paid much attention to UFO sightings I've read about the occasional incident but my curiosity has never really expanded beyond those few cases I just find that far too often the focus of UFO stories is on the mystery itself as opposed to the resolution of that mystery plausible explanations take a backseat to fantastical embellishments
00:58
there's an documentary and Netflix right now and I'm using the term documentary very loosely about a man who claims to be harassed and pursued by aliens in one scene he literally has someone bombed one of those alien masks you'd get for Halloween outside a window and it is played completely straight what you're doing holy we the audience are supposed to believe
01:33
that this is a close encounter of the Third Kind when it looks like a close encounter of the trick-or-treat calendar nevertheless this documentary did pique my interest and so I began to learn more about the UFO phenomenon immersing myself in this expansive mythos of which I only had a very limited understanding from the very start I was taking down this convoluted path of alien abductions government conspiracies and alien experiments that read like rejected the drafts of the x-files but every now and
02:04
again I came across something a bit more credible as stories that were genuinely difficult to rationalize nothing that would convince me the earth as a galactic resort but mystifying stories all the same to get you on the same page as me we need to go back to the year 1947 [Music] in the summer of 1947 news and government agencies across North America were flooded with reports of strange objects in the sky this UFO mania was
02:45
provoked by a pilot named Kenneth Arnold on June the 24th Arnold was flying over the Cascade Mountains in the state of Washington when he observed a formation of nine saucer-like objects zooming across the sky unbeknownst to Arnold this innocent description would come to popularize the term flying saucer the scintillating disc codes appeared to be traveling at the speed of some 2,000 km/h a speed yet to be achieved by any man-made airplane in 1947 Arnold initially suspect that he'd
03:16
observed some secret military test flight but the US Air Force quickly denied responsibility and made a dismiss de sighting as some form of optical illusion but it wasn't quite that simple not only was Arnold an experienced pilot but his story was corroborated by a number of witnesses on the ground who all described a series of oval-shaped objects traveling at a tremendous rate of speed furthermore other sightings have been reported dates before and would continue for many days after more than 800 cases in less than a month
03:46
including the famous Roswell incident publicly the US Air Force dismissed the sightings as nothing more than a combination of overactive imaginations and misperceptions of natural phenomena but internally the Air Force was just as mystified as the public and actually quite concerned hundreds of unrelated persons from all walks of life including high-ranking military officials scientists engineers politicians and professional pilots reported uncannily similar experiences
04:19
in the span of a few weeks both the public and the intelligence community grew increasingly convinced that something was hiding amongst a cloud you in late June of 1947 the Air Force covertly launched a preliminary investigation into the sightings as they suspected that some UFOs could be vessels of foreign or celestial origin by late September the existence of advanced aeronautical x' could not be eliminated while the majority of cases could be ascribed to
05:00
natural phenomena the maneuverability and evasive behavior displayed by some UFOs defied all conventional explanations it was speculated that these seemingly mechanical UFOs could be part of some top-secret military project either foreign or domestic it was feared that the Soviet Union had ceased German technology of the World War two and developed some advanced aircraft capable of covert infiltration of US airspace this led to the formation of project
05:31
sign a classified investigation that would attempt to determine whether or not UFOs posed a threat to national security while the project members entertained a number of plausible causes by the summer of 1948 a minority of credible and well documented UFO cases could not be resolved these cases became known as the unknowns by process of elimination project sign therefore concluded that the most probable explanation for the most inexplicable of cases was the extra-terrestrial
06:03
hypothesis in other words the unknowns did not appear to be from this earth however once this report reached the Pentagon it was rejected the interplanetary explanation was thought to be unsubstantiated and so the report was ultimately scrapped project sign was dissolved soon thereafter and subsequent investigations ultimately failed to ascertain the nature of these unknowns project signed successor Project Blue Book merely concluded that it was
06:37
statistically improbable that UFOs represented technological capabilities beyond her own as the vast majority of UFO sightings are misperceptions of natural phenomena the presumption was that all UFO sightings are likely to be misperceptions as such funding for UFO research could no longer be justified as the threat to national security was evidently non-existent government sanctioned UFO research officially ended with the dissolution of Project Blue Book in 1969 and the Air Force a sense
07:08
proclaimed the issue resolved out of the twelve thousand six hundred and eighteen UFO reports in its collection 701 were marked unknown upon its conclusion although some would argue that many cases were mischaracterized and at more than 1700 cases should be regarded as unknowns while the US government may dismiss these unknowns as mere statistical anomalies the fundamental question remains what did people see
07:37
what kind of natural phenomenon evades resolution despite decades of scrutiny [Music] [Applause] late in the afternoon on May 24 1949 six civilians were on a fishing trip on the Rogue River in the state of Oregon suddenly one of them observed a round and scintillating object in the sky it barely moved as it silently hovered some fifteen hundred meters above it was
08:17
difficult to discern any details with the naked eye but fortunately one of them had brought a pair of binoculars with eight times magnification the binoculars revealed a clearly distinguishable metallic craft of unfamiliar design it was round and flat about 10 meters in diameter and had a rounded fin on the roof it had a reflective silver colored surface that appeared to be somewhat dirty it lacked any conventional means of propulsion and made absolutely no sound after some two
08:49
minutes of observation the UFO gradually moved with in the opposite direction of the wind until it disappeared with the speed of a jet plane besides the corroborating accounts and detailed sketches what makes this case so interesting is that two of the civilian observers were also employed at an aeronautical research facility so they had ample knowledge of aeronautics furthermore the story never reached the public this is important because if this was a hoax one would expect to hoaxers
09:19
to seek immediate ention yet the witnesses who refrained from speaking to the press the story never reached the public eye until many years later when you follow gist sun cover the case files which revealed that project Bluebook had rather dismissively concluded it must have been a misidentified airplane or weather balloon so all we need now is a plane shaped like a pancake or a self-propelled balloon unaffected by wind [Music] items on display include the latest in
09:56
meteorological devices the weather balloon is equipped for the Radio Sun which permits measurement of atmospheric temperature humidity and pressure at various altitudes if you spend some time reading about UFOs you will soon come across an explanation that is repeated time and time again weather balloons the Battle of Los Angeles balloon the Roswell incident top-secret balloon the Mantell incident once again a balloon unfortunately for proponents of the extra-terrestrial hypothesis it is often
10:26
a rather convincing explanation however it is far less convincing when the witnesses of a UFO are themselves launching a balloon on April the 24th in 1949 a group of five balloonists had just launched a weather balloon in the New Mexico desert and were tracking said balloon with a special telescope suddenly the person operating the telescope sighted another object in the sky and alerted the rest of the group who could all see the UFO with the naked eye it had an elliptical shape and was
10:59
white silver and yellowish in color it was impossible to accurately determine its altitude and size due to the lack of reference points but it appeared to be flying at an extremely high altitude and moved so quickly across the sky it was difficult to track with a telescope it remained visible for about a minutes until it suddenly stopped its horizontal motion and disappeared by near vertical ascension into the clear blue sky it made no sound and traveled crosswind
11:29
a year prior a very similar incident had taken place on the 5th of April three balloonists in the New Mexico desert were observing a weather balloon when they spotted a UFO moving at a very high rate of speed it had a round shape and was white gray and goldish in color it flew erratically across the sky and performed vertical loops for about 30 seconds until it disappeared the desert was completely silent yet the UFO violently maneuvered without making a sound then on January the 16th 1951 two
12:02
balloonists and a number of pilots and civilians in the New Mexico desert observed two UFOs in the vicinity of the balloon they were observing the balloon had reached an altitude of 35 kilometers and even though it was about 30 meters in diameter the two UFOs were about three to five times larger and appeared to be flying above the balloon they had an elliptical shape and were white and gray in color they orbited at the balloon for about 40 seconds until they disappeared into the distance at a terrific rate of speed and these are
12:34
just three examples of many similar cases and despite the fact that the spectators involved could not have been more qualified to identify aerial phenomena none could explain what they had seen [Music] just before midnight on July the 19th 1952 radar scopes in and around Washington DC picked up a cluster of five to ten unidentified targets there
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were no scheduled flights in the area and the UFOs did not adhere to an established flight paths the possibility of a malfunction was quickly eliminated as radar scopes at three separate airports displayed the same unidentifiable targets eventually the objects could be visually confirmed as orbs of light slowly moving across the sky after a while the objects began to fan out zooming across the night sky of Washington DC they flew above the White
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House the Capitol building and many other restricted areas in a disorganized and unpredictable fashion on numerous occasions the UFOs performed sharp 90-degree turns and some would completely reverse course in a matter of seconds radar operators were baffled no manmade aircraft could perform such maneuvers air traffic controllers radar operators pilots military personnel and countless civilians all reported
14:16
sightings of UFOs one pilot remained in close proximity to the UFOs for about 14 minutes describing them as white lights with no recognizable shape while some lights flew in parallel to the plane others appear to be flying outside the Earth's atmosphere the sightings by the pilot also coincided with a radar detection suggesting that these were indeed if physical flying objects as opposed to radar misidentifications of some kind of the more than three hours to jet fighters were dispatched to intercept
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the UFOs but moments before they arrived the objects accelerated to speeds in excess of 10,000 km/h and disappeared out of sight however when the Jets returned to refuel the UFOs returned to disguise some five hours after initial detection the last UFO vanished from the Raider scoops but a week later the UFOs returned once more
15:18
on the evening of July 226 the numerous UFOs were observed streaking across the skies above and around Washington DC they shared many similarities with the UFOs from the week before appearing as orbs of light capable of extreme supersonic velocities the crew and passengers of some commercial flights could once again visually confirm the existence of many of the UFOs detected by radar four Jets were dispatched during the night and two of the pilots did see something on two separate
15:50
occasions one pilots of four white lights while the other saw a single white light however neither came close enough to make an accurate identification as the Jets were easily outmaneuvered by the UFOs under mounting pressure from the public to explain this apparent invasion of the US Capitol the Air Force held a press conference on July the 29th I am here to discuss the so-called flying saucers the air force interest in this problem has been due to
16:21
our feeling of an obligation to identify and analyze to the best of our ability anything in the air that may have the possibility of threat or menace to the United States however there have been a certain percentage of this volume of reports that have been made by credible observers of relatively incredible things it is this group of observations that we now are attempting to resolve we
16:52
can say that the recent sightings are in no way connected with any secret development by any Department of the United States at the conference they claimed that temperature inversions were to blame it's an atmospheric condition in which layers of warm air traps pockets of cold air which can result in false returns on a radar scope conversely the visual sightings were supposedly misperceptions of stars meet yours or strange reflections of natural
17:24
sources of light in other words it was all just a big misunderstanding and there was no cause for alarm it's a very odd explanation given that it completely disregards crucial pieces of information for one thing visual observations and radar detection were confirmed to be one and the same on numerous occasions when pilots claimed they had visual contact with a UFO ground personnel confirmed its existence and location on the radar scopes when pilots claimed a UFO
17:55
disappeared it simultaneously disappeared from the radar scopes another glaring issue is that temperature inversions occurred on a daily basis throughout the summer of 1952 yet unidentified radar targets only appeared on a two nights in question personnel at Andrews Air Force Base were not quite sure as to what they had seen claiming they may have seen meteors or other natural phenomena but the senior air traffic controller at Washington National Airport was certain they had
18:27
detected solid maneuvering objects while explicitly denying the possibility of weather-related targets furthermore none of the radar operators agreed with Air Force's conclusion everyone was certain they had been tracking metallic flying objects even the national weather bureau disagreed with a temperature inversion theory claiming that such phenomena would appear as amorphous streaks across the radar scopes as opposed to sharp the Linea ball dots in spite of these
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glaring contradictions the Air Force concluded the temperature inversions were to blame and that nothing extraordinary had taken place though somewhat paradoxically the project Bluebook files list the case as an unknown while simultaneously agreeing with the air force's conclusion [Music] on April the 24th 1964 police officer Lonnie Zamora was chasing a speeding car
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outside a city of Socorro in the New Mexico desert when he was alerted by a loud noise and a bright flame in the sky believing it to be an explosion he broke off the chase and drove towards the light to investigate the flame was blue and orange and appeared to be descending towards the ground about half a kilometre away after a difficult drive through the rough terrain he noticed the white and silver colored object some 200 meters distance it initially appeared to be an overturned car and he could see
20:09
two men in white coveralls standing beside it the two men seemed alarmed by Zamora's presence and looked straight at him but after clearing a small hill which momentarily obstructed his view the two men had vanished Samora could now discern that it wasn't a car but some kind of elliptical object supported by four metallic legs the white ellipsoid was about five meters in diameter and had a red insignia printed on the side he then proceeded on foot
20:42
and was about thirty meters away when he heard loud thumps as if someone closed the door and then a smokeless flame reminiscent of a welding torch suddenly erupted beneath the craft the flame was once again blue and orange in color and it produced the same roaring sound that was increasing in frequent ever so slowly the object began to rise at this point Samora became frightened and the loud noise gave him the impression that the UFO was about to
21:14
explode so he ran for cover behind his car but after a while the UFO went completely silent and was now hovering some six meters above the ground its speed gradually increased until it disappeared into the distance while Samora was the only person to observe the craft up close a number of witnesses had independently reported sightings of an oval-shaped UFO and a bluish flame before the story had reached the press
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one particular witness had observed a descent of an oval-shaped UFO and a police car chasing after it a second police officer arrived within minutes and both the FBI and the Air Force would soon converge upon the site the supposedly anding site was thoroughly investigated and photographed grass and bushes had been burnt and were still smoldering when the first officers arrived at the scene some of the burnt plants were notoriously difficult to set a flame the investigators also covered
22:17
four wedge-shaped indentations in the ground and they appeared to be fresh as the dry topsoil had been pushed aside revealing the still moist subsoil a cluster of footprints were also discovered within the rectangular region of the indentations no helicopters had been in the vicinity the insignia on the craft could not be identified the site was not radioactive radar had not picked up any unusual activity nor did a soil samples collected from the landing site reveal any evidence of chemical
22:48
propellants some claim that vitrified sand had been collected which is when extreme heat melts sand into glass however others refute this claim so it's difficult to know for certain nevertheless none of the investigators believed it to be a hoax the cluster of footprints were localized and did not lead away from the notations assuming Samora created indentations himself and somehow managed to ignite in near inflammable vegetation he must have done so without leaving any evidence or
23:20
footprints except for a small cluster near the center Samara was deemed highly reliable by everyone who knew him but more importantly by those who interrogated him despite plenty of opportunities to do so he never capitalized on the sighting nor did he seem to appreciate the attention the story attracted no evidence of a hoax has ever been uncovered and Sam Morris integrity remained intact until his death many decades later the project Bluebook investigation failed to reach a
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conclusion the most plausible explanation seemed to be that Lonnie Zamora had witnessed some kind of classified experimental aircraft an explanation favored by the local population as well as Samora himself given that the highly secretive military testing range known as the White Sands proving grounds is located right next door this is certainly a possibility however the unusual design and advanced capabilities of the craft observed it
24:22
still makes it difficult to believe unsurprisingly the military denied the existence of such a craft many years later the Air Force captain in charge of the investigation recalled a strange phone call he'd received at a time a high ranking military official at the Pentagon had called and personally questioned him about the case which he found to be highly unusual he thought it was unconventional for a colonel to be making such a call and so he wondered
24:54
why in the world were they so interested [Music] why is it that even though half the global population walks around with a high-resolution camera in their pocket high-resolution footage of flying saucers seem to be non-existent as in variations of this line of reasoning before and at first glance it may seem
25:27
quite decisive while it is true that cameras are more readily accessible and video quality has improved significantly over the past few decades so has the quality of forgeries thanks to software like After Effects almost anyone can create a convincing forgery which means that videos like these will never be the definitive proof they likely would have been a few decades ago imagine an ideal situation for a moment imagine that the reliable individual with no background in visual effects and no previous
25:57
interest in UFOs captures an actual unidentifiable aircraft on a high-resolution camera not some blob of pixels as if it was filmed by a Japanese adult film studio nor some indiscernible streak that requires CSI Eskin Hansons but an actual clearly distinguishable craft that defy all conventional explanations even then the authenticity of that footage would inevitably come into question and it would in all likelihood be impossible to prove that it actually happened and remember back
26:30
in 2011 a UFO in Jerusalem was captured on video by multiple people from multiple vantage points the case attracted worldwide attention and the multiple locations lent credence to the sightings authenticity however some time later a team of journalists tracked down the cameraman responsible and found that one was a filmmaker and film teacher while the others just so happened to be students at the same school drones have also made
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it far too easy to stage UFO sightings strange lights in the dark night sky performing seemingly impossible maneuvers drones got you covered what appears to be a solid craft and a clear blue guy that looks nothing like conventional drone drones got you covered it's become next to impossible to eliminate conventional explanations as virtually every person on the planet has gained easy access to the heavens above at this point nothing short of a spaceship landing in the middle of Times Square should be deemed convincing this is at
27:34
least in part why I chose to focus my attention on the older cases as none of these problems existed a few decades ago the first director of Project Blue Book Edward J ruppelt would later go on to write a book about the cases he and his team investigated in it he describes a drastic shift in the attitude towards UFO research following the rejection of the extra-terrestrial hypothesis the Air Force no longer sought to understand the nature of UFOs but rather sought to debunk the phenomenon at large in his
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own words everything was being evaluated on the premise that UFOs could not exist no matter what you see or hear don't believe it following the affer mentioned washington DC incident in 1952 this predisposition was only reinforced investigators were instructed to focus on cases they could solve and to never discuss the unknowns in public the subject was to be debunked and ridiculed and so it was what had initially been perceived as a potential
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threat to national security had now through an orchestrated public relations campaign been reduced for socially unacceptable pseudoscience grumbled writes in his book this change in the operating policy of the UFO project was so pronounced that's I like so many other people wondered if there was a hidden reason for the change was it actually an attempt to go underground to make the project more secretive it was it an effort to cover up the fact that
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UFOs were proven to be interplanetary and that this should be withheld from the public at all cost to prevent the mass panic maybe I was just playing the frontman too big cover up rumpled is of course just speculating but given that he was the head of the operation it does make you wonder if there may have been some truth behind those concerns assuming the military is lying then how does one distinguish a lie about alien spaceships
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from a lie about classified aircrafts we know nothing of either so the two deceptions would appear identical I mean I I want to believe but I'm just not sure what I'm supposed to believe in after working my way through a few hundred cases I feel even more conflicted than I did when I began but things were just so much simpler than I could just laugh at a man pretending to be scared of a Halloween mask no grand conspiracy ZnO extraterrestrials none of
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that just mortal fear and a piece of plastic times [Music] you [Music]

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