天安门 The Gate of Heavenly Peace 1995

天安门 The Gate of Heavenly Peace 1995

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00:39
[Music] on the night of June 3rd 1989 tanks and armored vehicles of the People's Liberation Army moved into Beijing and put an end to seven weeks of peaceful protests after the shooting on the night of June 3rd when I found out that so many people had died I felt neither anger nor sorrow I was completely numb there was a huge emptiness I just couldn't believe they would open fire
01:25
[Music] tell my head come in at night in the first few days after my son was killed wonderful many friends colleagues and students came to express their sympathy they all said that soon the official verdict would be overturned they thought you should as investigations and arrests began fewer and fewer people came to see me Jim that mean people ran into me they
02:02
were silent fun it was as though nothing had ever happened [Music] events do not deliver their meanings to us they are always interpreted on the morning of June 5th there was a moment that would come to symbolize the hope and the tragedy of those spring days he disappeared into the crowd afterwards and no one knows where he is now no one is even certain of his name but for the millions who saw this scene all over the
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world its meaning was clear here was human hope and courage challenging the remorseless machinery of state power the Chinese government interpreted this same justice simply but differently changing to bounce the glioma certainties I said the ticket pocket Boise pharmacy Roy - in front RDL files Jung housewarming the woman that Jinping for tiller 3 partying through the
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curtain in the days after the end of the protest at 10:00 and then large numbers of people were arrested all over China Satch on June 13 Donna I heard the government's most wanted list on the radio at first it seemed only students were on the list but I finally heard my own $2 woman I couldn't stand the humiliation of being hunted down by the police I wanted to maintain as much dignity as possible while facing
03:49
inevitable for who was Aziz so I decided to go to the police on my own I told the police I've come here because you've got your facts wrong I don't know if it's deliberate or because you don't understand what really happened since I was involved I feel it's my duty to straighten you out [Music] when individuals stand up to power they bring to the encounter the lessons that power has taught them and the harm it has done them merely to stand up does
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not free us from these things behind every gesture of hope and courage lies a life a society a history Tiananmen the gate of heavenly peace is the gate leading into the Imperial City for centuries the center of power in China in 1919 though the emperor had long been overthrown students gathered at Tiananmen had denounced the government's
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failure to stand up to foreign powers their protests spread quickly through the country and came to be known as the may 4th movement years of student demonstrations followed despite violent government repression arrests and killings generation after generation the students came out to protest inspiring other Chinese to follow them China was in danger and corrupt officials didn't care young intellectuals felt they must place their
05:25
lives on the line to awaken the people they aimed to save the nation through democracy and modern science and the discarding of oppressive traditions [Applause] when the great change did come it came from the countryside a peasant army led in part by people who had participated in the student protests Mao Zedong's communists army entered Beijing in 1949 national power returned to the city and to China men
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the traditional rulers of China had always remained hidden behind the closed gates of the Imperial City when now appeared before the people that top channel men he reversed centuries of symbolism the center of power was visibly shifted from the Imperial City behind the gate to the broad masses in front all facing the leader who stood above before the founding ceremonies of the People's Republic of China in 1949
06:31
Tiananmen Square was full of weeds as high as your waist duties from Beijing and Ching hai universities volunteered to clear away all the we s yes it was students then too at that time young people were very enthusiastic about the People's Liberation Army and about the revolution it was a gentleman that the
07:03
People's Republic of China was founded who was a gentleman that Mao announced the Chinese people have stood up [Music] [Applause] [Music] [Music] foolish alcohol me when I was a child I went to tenon and twice a year for the parade's multiple hours I do it on Tenon's and you'll enjoy the tether after the parade had passed a huge crowd of children will rush up to the gate
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shouting joyfully to crap no words just the sound of children's voices this created the desired effect what different flooring I was one of those children I would wave flowers or release balloons or doves Wow wave his hand like the adults [Applause] - the Queen's Hanukkah at that time many communist leaders moved on to quarters within the old imperial city realized a
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hearing before they had lived with the peasants Jochen it was said fish cannot live out of water but after the Revolution if a peasant went into the city to look up a leader he had known in the past he wouldn't be able to find him the water could no longer find the fish the fish were inside the palace and Mao himself became an effect the Emperor hailed as a man who would live forever of course I was unable to see it like
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this in the 1950s in the 1950s the government ordered the building of a great square in front of ten men to accommodate the masses several of China's later leaders first came to prominence as dedicated model workers in the building of the square the gigantic square would become the largest public space in the world and the center of Chinese political life on one side of it was built a great fall of the people on the other a museum of history and the
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revolution in the center of the square stood the monument commemorating the martyrs of the revolution a tombstone of the great Dead which consecrates the square as sacred ground the monument depicts scenes from China's history since 1840 there are no recognizable individuals collectively they represent the people among the ancestors of new China pictured on the monument are the students of May 4th 1919 protesting
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before the gate itself when the students of 1989 occupy gentlemen square they made their headquarters here beneath images of other students who changed trials history they were consciously associating themselves with the tradition of student protests in China by their own actions they were adding further meaning to this place the place in all of China was charged with meaning good morning
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beloved D King good morning beloved cannon man gate of heavenly peace in Mao's era channa man became the symbol of the new China the gate and the square the people and the leader who expressed the people's will gentleman had once led into the Imperial Palace now it was the focus of Mao square now antenna men were one [Music] what to namitha became completely
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entangled with the lives of the Chinese people that this was because under the communist party everyone's life became involved with politics when I graduated from University in 1966 I sincerely believed what I was taught that I was a brand-new boat to be used in the construction of the great mansion of communism I was willing to be put wherever my country needed me I was
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prepared to stay in place my whole life to me Mao was like God I believed that he was not only the great leader of the Chinese people but also the great leader of people throughout the world I feared the day when he would no longer be with us I really hoped there'd be a scientific breakthrough that would enable young people like us to voluntarily give up a year of our lives to add a minute to his syndrome that way the world would be saved in 1976 now died between an earthquake
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and a solar eclipse traditional portents of the end of an era at the funeral the great throng faced channa men but the place where Mao had stood was empty all of the leaders remained on a platform below Mao still resides in the square the mausoleum built in 1977 at the south end of the square is not a tomb so much as a grand villa it contains a huge marble armchair for the chairman and a
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bed to where he lies little sauce he didn't shed a single tear when Mao died or they keep him I felt I've been cheated he'll think I've never visited the MAL mausoleum it's so disgusting Mao is dead but not gone the great portrait that hangs on 10 mm still presides over every parade and celebration held in the great square [Music] during the student demonstrations of 1989 three men from Mao's own home
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province of Hunan splattered the great portrait with ink the students immediately distance themselves from this act they denounce the outrage and helped arrest the man responsible shortly after the desecration gale force winds blew and torrents of rain fell on the square some people actually wondered was the chairman displeased within hours the portrait was replaced but it is not only Mao's face his vision of history
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his language his actions still loom large in China's imagination he found Henry in a shoe the feet who made communism is actually a promise of something perfect it's easy for people who are dissatisfied with all the imperfections of real life that should be attracted to it during the 1930s and 40s many people were drawn to the Communist Party because they wanted to escape the ugly reality yosh and they longed for the promise throughout the first decade of the
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revolution that promise had the support of large segments of society now provided the vision of an ideal society but he had little interest in the day-to-day work of bringing it about that was left to his associates among them was dong zhuo ping a mother the picture she's at LA now had the personality of a Romantic poet Jones is
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that of a pragmatist not a puritanical theoretician or an idealist he's different from Mao in that he knows that when people are hungry they need to eat they can't live on poetry during the 1950's ma launched wave after wave of persecutions against people who have different views by 1959 no one dared express any dissenting opinions anymore Kushina he had to had the last word on everything and people would have
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tolerated it if his policies had worked out well but he made a mess of things millions of people starved to death so his comrades had to help patch things up what this meant a slight retreat for moms you Toki illusions don like to quote a statue on proverb it doesn't matter whether a cat is black and white if it catches mice it's a good cat but mouths solution when things went wrong was always more revolution not
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less he saw anyone who stood between him and his masses as an enemy he saw bureaucrats and lingering bourgeois elements undermining the original promise of the revolution against the government bureaucracy now mobilized his masses a fresh uprising of the people the only source of progress now called it a Cultural Revolution the people were enjoying Dom in jus mass democracy chaos can't harm us he proclaimed it can only harm our
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enemies now lost control of the Cultural Revolution it became a war of all against all - Oh King was among those attacked now stripped him of his power then brought him back to repair a shattered society by those in power who had experienced mouths mass democracy yungshao Kings greatest fear would be Don Juan turmoil chaos appeal when the students
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of 1989 took to the streets they too were branded is stirring up the one many leaders in the government saw them in the light of the past they were a throwback to the horrors of the Cultural Revolution that had nearly destroyed China at the end of the Cultural Revolution the Chinese economy was on the verge of bankruptcy what could be done now here's where dung Xiao ping was
18:03
really smart yotz yeah his prescription was capitalism reform and opening-up actually meant learning from capitalism but he couldn't say that outright because capitalism was supposed to be our arch enemy now how could you turn around and learn from our enemy they'd help you so done came up with something called socialism with Chinese characteristics how do you mean if he
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followed his instincts first and foremost the people didn't have enough to eat they had to be fed secondly the people who had been politically wronged had to be exonerated these were very practical things little did you know what tremendous changes would be triggered once this process began it was deep winter 1979 when a thaw began to be felt a stretch of bare wall near the city center became a place where people posted their hopes and fears about the new China there were a
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dozen unofficial journals - and new voices heard a young man named Wei Jingsheng wrote a poster what China needed was more than the four modernizations the government was promoting in agriculture industry science and defense China needed a fifth modernization democracy democracy wasn't the result of progress Wei Jingsheng argued it was a precondition for progress meanwhile dong Xiao Peng was on
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the road apparently moving away from communist ideology dong was welcomed in America Time magazine into the man of the year in the US China's economic reforms were greeted with enthusiasm ladies and gentlemen the President of the United States and his Excellency Deng Xiaoping the Vice Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China [Applause] [Music] rocky mouth ha lucky man ha
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[Music] mr. vice premier it is with great joy that we welcome you to our country and it is with true love's that we extend our very best wishes to you and your people on your new long march toward modernization in this century I thank you very much Plato 10 dung Show king went to America and soon after hope came to China
21:18
they were off on the road to China with fun and adventure in mind the seventh wonder of the world is here beneath our feet compared to this the road to Mandalay is obsolete this is it Peking China amazing unit just ten years is a hood of dress an American comedian would be standing here in Tiananmen Square saying whatever he pleased and photographing anything he
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please but in this fast-moving world radical changes can occur overnight take a look at this square almost a hundred acres looks like Jackie Gleason's patio now they're gonna bit into half people in here of course they're not here today nobody knew I was coming Americans felt an enormous relief the Chinese are after all just like us they want what we want and maybe we can sell it to them but even as China and the US swaps
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celebrities and made deals the dark gates closed on others for his warning that dong might become a new dictator Wei Jingsheng was framed and sentenced to 15 years he was still in prison when the students came to China man in 1989 to demand democracy few of them knew his story in China if you wanted to express your opinions you had to speak from within the Communist Party if you talked
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outside they'd throw you in jail the only option for a pure idealist is to commit suicide Jahna that once wrote an essay entitled commit suicide and save the country of course it didn't pass the censors [Music] [Applause] listen canastas that I completely lost faith in the Communist Party I thought the only workable thing was to join up and try and change it committed suicide
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myself wouldn't do the country much good a more useful thing to do was to help the Communist Party commit suicide Lebanon taught us that the easiest way to take a fortress is from within there's also the Trojan horse in ancient Greece if you can't win through confrontation you have to try sneaking inside and someone like myself could join the party was because cracks had already appeared before those reforms someone like me would never have been let in now begins the grandmas parade to
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celebrate the 35th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China by 1984 when the People's Republic marked its 35th anniversary there was something new to celebrate the success of dong Xiao Qing's reforms [Music] once dung had been purged by Mao for his disobedience now dung was no longer under the great teachers shadow he could make his own plans and he had the power to execute
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them he would be called the grand architect over for my dumb side were his loyal ministers who you bong doubts young men given the task of reform men who can also be blamed when reform went too far [Applause] some students in the parade raised a homemade banner greeting dong by his first name hello Xiao ping an unheard-of Liberty
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people were genuinely grateful to dong China's industry is advancing toward modernization like agriculture it will soon be carried forward on the wave of reform the early reforms brought quick and dramatic change in the countryside communes were broken up rural markets were revived farmers started to make money there was a lot
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more money to be made the old man in charge were changing China the results were going to be seen everywhere after decades of relative isolation China was looking outward to the world just ahead all the enticements of capitalism Becca [Applause] [Music]
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our life is getting better and better the light industry boat shows how life is becoming more colorful as our living standards runs [Music] eg bossy the National Day celebrations in 1984 were an elaborate enthusiastic affair many people saw a bright future ahead no wait one sound well hallelujah doctor God but why did my friends and I feel so depressed what do you want the overcast sky a lone
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figure of dong shopping popping out of that car riding stirring facedown song on Avenue I thought it all boded ill for the future that kind of spectacle was the heritage of the Mao era it was an embodiment of revolution and for us revolution was made up of a small number of ambitious federal careerists on the one hand thoughtful and the frenzied masses on the other say and we were fed up with all that
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a measure of economic prosperity had been achieved by 1984 wasn't what we saw countless difficulties ahead and we didn't know how heavy a price the Chinese people might still have to pay all I could do was to help change things bit by bit I knew I couldn't make that much difference but that didn't matter because there was nothing else worth doing anyway singing and dancing a million and a half people in the capital attend the grand National Day evening carnival
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[Music] the carnival evening will forever remain in our memories come to see Tiananmen come to see our country in five years time [Music] [Music] on May 28th 1989 a student leader named chai Ling requested an interview with an American journalist Tiananmen Square was then occupied by students martial law
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had been declared no one knew what might happen the interview was recorded with a home video camera these may be my last words because the situation is becoming very grim my name is chai Ling I am 23 years old oddly enough my birthday is on April 15 the day we all bomb died whoo-yah bong had been the general secretary of the party and dong zhuo pings chosen successor public mourning
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for who would last for a week and would become the ground from which all the demonstrations of 1989 would grow in many ways the movement is not very mature an opportunity presented itself accidentally no one knew we our bond was going to die when he did this movement is a great manifestation of the natural Democratic instincts of the students and the people a spontaneous expression of the people's own interests I've come into contact with people from
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all walks of life they feel they have no security many have gone overseas I feel this country is finished it's going to die who you bomb had been removed from power two years before his death he'd been accused of leaning towards bushwa liberalism no one protested openly when who was purged but now people claimed him as a champion of enlightened rule mourning for him became a cover for protests against those still in power or as it was said at the time the men who should drop dead are still alive
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yet the man who should be alive is dead in Chinese culture there's a phenomenon I'd call the cult of the Dead the soil after death all the man's flaws when forgotten and his memory is enshrined in a halo of floor then people use the dead man to vent their anger and express their hopes he's our change world over yeah it was clear to me that people
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weren't simply concerned with one man's death it's like wonder who else who yo bongs death made it possible for a crowd to gather in a public place you gave them something to discuss and that led to discussions of all kinds of other issues most of the talk was about our own lives whoo yeah my parents kept saying in the past all the wait is below raising three children how come these days even with you holding a job we're
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always short of the money dong zhuo king's reforms which had been so popular we're disappointing a lot of people by the end of the 80s workers could no longer count on lifelong employment the iron rice bowl and the socialist safety net of medical benefits and Pensions was being dismantled defectors had trouble paying their workers kicked out a bunch of people they didn't use the word fire they
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called it reprioritizing to work force yah all these things came with reform trade autre Dollard side flubaroo you show hey everyone knows what happened in the early stages of capitalism from the Hadron hack your usual the competition was savage and there was no protection for the weak who roared other and few all on the quest for profits there was a total disregard for the impact on the society and the environment this is exactly what's happening in China right
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now publish it in cortical no more take we're in a transitionary the reforms are necessary but workers have to protect their own interests to get rich was glorious said the government but those who got rich were mostly people in power and insiders who had always done well only government and industry cadre could work the turn over buying goods at fixed government prices and selling them on the free market at a big profit more
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than anything else workers complained of corruption the officials taking cake damn it so why can't we dick how come when we take we're called criminals and when you take you're not I'm a she all shine [ __ ] people needed to vent their anger but they were worried because so many had been persecuted in the past just for speaking out because in a crowd they felt it was safe to let off steam often someone would rant and rave and then quickly disappear back into the ground but I felt that the reason for a lot of
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my suffering was that hardly anyone took responsibility for what they said or did I thought I should try and set an example so I told people my name on every floor to show that I was prepared the consequences for what I said I wanted to indicate to people that to change the society we had to start with yourself students and intellectuals had been among the strongest supporters of the reforms yet after a decade of economic growth they enjoyed few of the benefits you'll
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find you see there's a saying in Beijing you're as poor as a professor as dumb as a PhD this was really true no matter how hard you work there is something really wrong with the reforms those in power have benefited from them not the people although there are superficial economic prosperity the masses and the intellectuals have been deprived of any
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hope or initiative [Applause] [Music] Tomiko semester people were cool in a match Susan and me Dada [Music] the Communist Party had always defined minjoo democracy in just this way the people in charge but of real democracy was to be implemented how were the people to take charge young boys I'm fine when China is so huge and
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communications are so bad even if you were to call national elections tomorrow tell people know whom to vote for conditions weren't right for a sudden leap to that stage of democracy but people did know whom they wanted to elect in their local communities so open elections were already possible at the village level when this form of democracy became more routine we could introduce broader elections on the county level and then higher and higher up those of us who are working for Josue yung push for this type of grass roots
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level democratic election of course the hardline communists immediately saw this as a threat to their power so they were dead set against it do you attending the ADI condoms now that as for the intellectuals they said grassroots democracy is not important what we want to determine is the fate of China not just the fate of a village so we had trouble getting support students dissatisfied with the status quo might have taken up the hard work of building democracy at the local level or they
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might have organised to demand redress of their own grievances as underpaid and undervalued intellectual workers but that's not what interested most students they talked as Chinese students have always talked of saving China Bonds death was caused by the mental stress resulting from his illegal removal from office we thought memorizing one man was not going to help China to ensure our
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nation's positive development we have to start transforming the political system we wanted to use this opportunity to put forth our political demands Trucy hall see around midnight on April 17th we set up from Beijing University we carried a banner that read the soul of China the morning of the 18th over a thousand students held a meeting in the
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square the students settled on seven demands and wrote up a petition they carried the petition to various government offices and Xinhua Mao the entrance to the old palace compound where China's top leaders live in work the students waited for an answer [Applause] the students surged towards the gate a number of times so I went over to the
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big red columns I called out to them right now of course I'm a worker being I've been a soldier myself and I think what you're doing is very risky sighs Roth IRA John soil and Halloween [ __ ] you may trigger food this is the seat of the highest power in the nation don't you swarm in the government will have every reason to mow you down you're afraid how the others here go to Thomas my boy awesome I said to sacrifice yourself like this is completely meaningless which lead wants other
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methods to achieve our goals for a Joe Bob I told people to stop pushing but I sit down and wait they're not thought eventually the crowd settled down there were no clashes that night the next night I didn't go to Xinhua Minh but later I heard they've been a bloody incident kayo Hey [Applause] [Applause] [Applause] to achieve concrete results student
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activists felt they needed a new organization of their own those who are willing to lead it we're taking a great risk on the night of April 19th a new Student Union was formed at Beijing University seven people volunteered to be on the organizing committee they became the leaders because they were courageous enough to step forward there were no formal elections later the committee made many efforts to organize
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elections but because we constantly faced new crises we couldn't do what we do Ridge '''l II intended organizing committees appeared on many Beijing campuses and within days formed a citywide coalition of independent student unions [Music] before dawn on April 22nd students gathered at Tiananmen for whoyou bonds official funeral the list of their grievances had lengthened with every passing day
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whoo and mourning in his name was acquiring greater significance [Music] 3:10 is on April 22nd a memorial ceremony for whoo-yah bond was held in the Great Hall of the People now I hope when I entered you you I felt that the atmosphere was very grim like a ceremony scene hurry and after party secretary general Zhao Zi young read the eulogy from all the leaders from the
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Central Committee rushed off [Music] when I came out of the Great Hall of the People I saw a huge crowd gathered in gentleman square I wanted to go over to them but there were nine rows of police standing between us the students had brought their petition and demanded that leepung the Prime Minister come out to accept it himself when we saw our
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classmates kneeling there holding the petition with raised arms everyone cried in it with our suggestions to the government but we had to hand it in kneeling down no one paid any attention no one came forward to accept it we're taking a good theory go to your shoe it is some unity we all saw those three students earthy sweet workers families premier you should come out you should accept the petition and answer their
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demands even if you don't agree you should at least make some gesture but the premier just left he completely ignored the students how do you expect people to take that how could the government be so callous many of us who had just gathered inside the Great Hall had taken part in student movements when we were young with them I said that yeah so why were you treating the students this way now
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she's really changing that during those early days of the movement she pleaded with the authorities petitioned them like loyal subjects and traditional China at first we made direct appeals then we pleaded with tears and on bended knee yes we were even willing to kneel down before them and like subjects petitioning the Emperor woman we had to beg them to come out and talk to us Tarantino interest initiation Eugenie quit then again it's fair to say that
46:18
the government virtually crumbled under the weight of our knees but the students with Hosea now were the very same things we had opposed in our youth why did we turned into a party which was against the people students hour was not the same Communist Party I had once joined good evening thousands of Chinese students took to the streets today in defiance of a government ban on public
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protests the students chant was for democracy their demands for political reform the backdrop was a memorial service for fallen leader who yell bang no one today I was in New York many time this sort of news was on television and in the papers every day when friends got together all we talked about were these events they didn't shoot the TV images
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affected me deeply I thought what's the use of getting all worked up about it if you're so far away I had to go back so I got on a plane leaving New York on April 26 when I was changing planes in Tokyo I met someone who had just come from China he said what do you think you can do that haven't you heard about the editorial that just appeared it calls the movement a plot by a small handful to instigate an tea party and he state you don't want
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doom luan turmoil upheaval chaos a people's daily editorial denounced the demonstrations we must unequivocally opposed doom luan the headline read such an editorial appearing in the official Communist Party media amounted to a charge of criminal conspiracy they are walking the walk we were the reason you come it was dangerous for me to go back well I owe me I even asked about flights returning to New York holiday gonna tell
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one they feed you the D Road but then I heard the boarding and now safe for my flight - bumpy do not even say ninja ho I didn't have time that I had to get on that plane just shall please you Hui buck I thought what the heck never dying I'll just go sorry ocean oh you fab y'all with the April 26th editorial the government took a firm stand against the student movement the Communist Party has a tradition of passing judgment on
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social incidents through the media community by fighting N'Dour past Mao had written quite a few people's daily editorials himself under your path he launched a number of mass political persecutions this way that's why I went April 26 editorial came out people listened and was represented dongs attitude toward the student demonstrations everyone expected that the government would crack down on a demonstration phase how since we were
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very angry what petty-minded you may you gonna go these people in the government have gone completely haywire just something you're anxious just listen to what they're saying see cuz it sounds like the Cultural Revolution all over again what's it ho ya mind says even the words were identical to the editorial which came out after the Tiananmen incident of 1976 yong cuo we all lived through that episode [ __ ] canisters yeah we know how
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that ended up [Music] the editorial of April 26th reminded many people of what happened after another great state funeral the events of 1976 known to everyone as the [ __ ] incident in January of 1976 premier Joe my mouse close associate one of the great heroes of the revolution died the people of the Capitol could not restrain their bitter grief they left
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their home and gathered on the sidewalks of the Chung and boulevard along which the court age would pause Joe was widely regarded as a moderate more humane and tolerant than other top leaders just as the mourning for who you bong in 1989 was the occasion for protest the outpouring of grief for Joe and ly was a reproach to the hardliners in power [Applause] don't you stop for a moment dear friend
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this is 10 on men don't you remember the many festive occasions we celebrated here together your ringing laughter is still in our ears your warm gaze rests on our tears [Music] beloved premier Joe are we miss you how we need you [Music]
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The Times will important leaders died are dangerous Joe and lie was a mentor of Deng Xiaoping he helped break down back into government to counter the excesses of the Cultural Revolution dung gave the eulogy at Joe's funeral but the events following Joe's death would once again bring duck shouting down that April during the traditional festival in honor of the Dead thousands of people
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gathered spontaneously and gentlemen Square to lay wreaths in honor of Joe and ly they read poems gave speeches reports made to Mao said the agitation was really directed against him police removed the wreaths but people brought more police ordered the crowds to disperse the crowds overturned a police van and set it afire at last Mao took action workers armed with cloves were sent in there were beatings and arrests in the official
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press the events in the square were denounced as counterfeit violence inspired by a small handful of conspirators the alleged mastermind behind the turmoil was that unrepentant reactionary dong Xiao ping Don was denounced condemned forced from power not until after Mao's death would he emerge as China's new paramount leader then the verdict on the 1976 upheavals would be reversed the scenes in channel square would be replayed with
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a different meaning they became courageous demonstrations of the people's will and yet now in 1989 the government of dong Xiao ping faced again with protests inspired by the death of a leader reached for the old words of denunciation once again the supreme leader heard reports that the agitation was directed against him once again a small handful of conspirators were supposedly plotting to bring down the
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state once again the irrevocable judgment was passed fiddle-de-dee editorial of April 26th caught the students by total surprise we didn't expect that the government would jump to such a vicious conclusion about us we felt that without large-scale Street action we couldn't compete with the propaganda machine of the government and the people wouldn't know the truth about what we were doing the Chinese Constitution guarantees the people free speech and the right to demonstrate but Chinese law punishes
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counter-revolutionary instigation by the enemies of the people the final arbiter was the Communist Party were the students the people or were they now enemies of the people who must be suppressed I got together with some friends to talk about the situation you mean all of us were teachers at various universities we heard that huge numbers of police would be deployed the next day this really worried us we decided to
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demonstrate with our students Nagesh REO we felt that we must show where we stood at a moment like this in the early morning of April 27th students set out from campuses all over the city and walk toward gentlemen square the political center of China [Applause] police were placed on alert throughout Beijing and position to blockade key intersections along the route we were
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prepared to face great danger some students even wrote their wills this was because we had heard that the government was moving in troops to suppress any further demonstrations everyone showed a lot of self-control since the government had accused us of instigating turmoil we were eager to show the people that we weren't a lawless mob nor were we trying to overthrow the Communist Party of socialism [Applause] what a brilliant Hey many workers were
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furious the government said that the students were instigating turmoil well the way I see students were wrong you wouldn't have to send the police soldiers there are plenty of young workers like me who could beat them up but the students were right they've expressed what was in the hearts of us workers that's why we went out to support them I would really move that day the students held out cardboard boxes for donations
56:56
cause I stuff money now whole not make me okay when I saw the students were sweating I bought popsicles for them I supported this demonstration because it was focused against one of the most fundamental means by which the Communist Party maintains its rule that is to accuse people of fabricated political crimes students showed real convictions
57:28
they put their lives and their future on the line to fight this unjust system thousand kisses which when we started out I was very worried about the possibility of bloodshed pochittona but if telling the students but if we encounter the police see that we should not force our way past them copies of 2001 Lawrence has a clash with the police was so intense it's that where people could have been trampled to death to happen is also zippy when she's done with rowdy but it was obviously high as
58:03
at least were not ordered to beat people up traceroute they only try to form human blockade the students met drivel further resistance they continued their march toward Tiananmen Square schism the students were very pleased with themselves for breaking off through police lines and the cheering of onlookers made them feel like real pirates the whole thing now turned into a carnal yummy obese because there was no more danger and everyone was watching the Stooges big show so that was how I
58:38
felt later that day completely different from when I started out it had been an unprecedented day am a student demonstration held in the face of government warnings have been allowed to march peacefully through the streets and that very day the government announced that it was willing to talk when I mailed Osama in this event both sides had made efforts to exercise restraint this unprecedent the moment you could
59:10
have opened up new possibilities if only people understood what it meant a historical opportunity is often easily overlooked easily passed by unfortunately it is just what happened I had just arrived back in China at that point I suggested to the students that it was not a good idea to continue staging huge demonstrations Donald in Hollywood that once you have shown your strength we should return to class and
59:40
try to secure some specific democratic rights on campaign demeaned or few students were ready simply to go back to class but what should they do next the triumph of April 27th would be the last moment in which all parties working for change were united the euphoria soon began to fade and disagreements over tactics developed in lourdes do not represent is a call for social justice there are times when we have no choice
01:00:12
but to take to the streets to express our ideas and our anger and show a determination to change things April 27th was such a treat the students did a great job and the government is forced to change its usual behavior but our ultimate goal is to change the entire system this cannot be accomplished by students staying on the streets the students demanded that the government grant legal status to their new organization the coalition of independent student unions and talked
01:00:44
with them as equals they wanted to wake walk dialog from each abiding one of the most important demands raised by the students was for the government to have a dialogue with him where did the idea of dialogue come from actually Joseon was the first to promote it he said government leaders should engage in dialogue the ordinary people don't need golf party hardliners opposed this from the start it's absurd they said party and the people are one family he's yawning how can a fan go negotiate with itself
01:01:15
you're trying to imitate the West they wouldn't even let us just that word dois dois dialogue was a key part of the Reformers strategy to open up the political system it was aimed at making officials at all levels more responsive to popular opinion the head of the party general secretary John seyoung was a leading advocate of these reforms at the 1987 Party Congress Joe was finally able to get the principle of dialogue adopted
01:01:46
as official policy but to have the entrenched party bureaucracy behave in new ways was another matter oh man what guardians worth on April 29th the government held a meeting with representatives of the official student union of Beijing only a few of the new activists managed to get in un mu was the government spokesman his was not the new more open faced that Jiao Zi yang wanted he spoke with a voice of standard
01:02:19
party authoritarianism what he did most of the talking the independent student unions called this meeting a fraud surrounded by the media the student leaders made the rounds of government offices to present their conditions for further talks at one government Bureau a group from the countryside was trying to get their grievances heard grassroots democracy hadn't reached their village so they were doing what they've always done kneeling before the offices of the central government to beg for official
01:02:58
intervention in their local problems they were having little luck getting anyone to listen the Stevie said that unless the government accepted their preconditions for dialogue they would watch again how many don't you talk warmer but for me you cooked all day
01:03:28
she's your sister away and yourself with swords it Tiana B what are ya Tommy yo Joe your daddy's using Soweto jingo party so she means to dictionary so we got a nice vision she senses in the hallway that's what the dream up some student activists were trying to institute elections and they were
01:04:01
getting support on campus [Applause] when we dr. wheelo thought you go [Music] [Applause] through elections on many campuses a student dialogue group was formed the students now change their tactics rather than demanding official recognition as a precondition for dialogue they were willing to talk right away and they wanted to talk about their constitutional rights do you Hassan as
01:04:42
well the aim of dialogue was not to solve everything we wanted to establish some ground open up some channels for communication so that whenever problems arose there be ways of resolving it yes we did you win t we we wanted to lay some foundations for the future we wanted to make a good start what we were hoping for was gradual progress reform not cataclysmic change not revolution
01:05:12
because honestly in 1989 the situation wasn't so bad that people felt they needed a revolution a new path seemed to be opening up a path leading away from the confrontational politics that had dominated China for decades the path China had long ago failed to take [Music] on May 4th China celebrated the 70th anniversary of the demonstrations of 1919 when patriotic students had first
01:05:45
protested against an unresponsive government there were two celebrations on that day the government sponsored commemorations at the monument and a master who marched from the University District to chanimal Square [Applause] the students sang a patriotic song in the 1930s [Music]
01:06:36
[Music] in official Communist Party history the student protests of 1919 were but a prelude to the party's revolutionary makeover of China but in fact many of the leading voices of the may 4th era spoke not for revolution but for democratic reform after their days of street protest many students went back to school took up various professions and continue to work for social change
01:07:13
those who saw no hope for reform joined the Communist Party to fight for an ideal Society over the decades the voices championing gradual change we're either stifled by conservative power holders or drowned out by cries for revolution by marching into Tiananmen Square the students of 1989 were saying to the party we are the true inheritors of the Democratic legacy of the may 4th movement but the may 4th spirit they were most familiar with was the one the party had
01:07:48
taught them the value system of the Communist Party revolution is placed at the top so comrades are called revolutionary comrades couples revolutionary couples and families revolutionary families everything is revolutionary reform is not a good word in communist vocabulary challenge and we were trying to do was to introduce the idea of incremental change to the people of China what we were trying to tell them that reform was not a bad thing and that revolution often failed to
01:08:16
deliver its promise once again the government had not suppressed the March in fact the leaders at the top were deeply divided on how to deal with the protesters on the very day of the May 4th anniversary party secretary general Jiao Tong made a speech that departed surprisingly from the hardline April 26 editorial Anna nationally-televised meeting with foreign bankers Joe told his audience that there was no serious turmoil in China Dawei hua dialogue Joe
01:08:51
said was the solution to the present tension the students now debated should they go back to class and show support for this conciliatory attitude or did joseon's remarks indicate deep rifts in the central government that must be exploited by pushing harder going farther many students went back to class we're bhajana mishali on May 8th several leaders of the independent Student Union
01:09:23
of my University came to see me oh she told you hi ultrasonic oh they complained about the students who had a return to class and said they wanted to blockade the classrooms we are lazy otaku I said I thought you are demanding democracy basic principle a democracy is the right of individual choice if you deprive others of their choice how is that different from the way the Communist Party has always deprived you of your choice it had not this was a problem
01:09:56
they couldn't come up with any good arguments in response but they still felt uncomfortable they said then how can we get anything done you in China everything has always been handled this way only by preventing others from doing what they want can you accomplish what you want the movement at Beijing University also reached the low point more and more students returned to class a lot of energy was wasted debating whether we should go back to class or
01:10:25
not I felt increasingly frustrated at that time I thought we should resume classes because I felt a stalemate like this wouldn't necessarily get us anywhere and the students were pretty tired on May 10th Wang dong gave an interview to a Canadian television reporter I think that the student movement should move on to a new stage no more large-scale intense street action no more boycotting classes instead we need down-to-earth work to build
01:10:58
democracy on campus the legalization of student organizations independent student newspapers and radio stations and so on this work might not look all that grand or glamorous but it's extremely important and yet over the heads of the prominent student leaders still hung the people's daily editorial of April 26 the shadow of dongle on that threat cut off any
01:11:28
impulse toward moderation once we were chatting I said how many years to political offenders get someone said he used to be three years then it was increased to five years than seven and then 17 years I felt very sad if I got seventeen years I'd be 40 by the time I
01:12:15
got out I really didn't want that to happen and they 11 the situation we placed a lot of Hope on talks with the government but they kept putting it off we feared that the movement would run out of momentum then the government would have been able to arrest the student leaders one by one and disband the independent unions so it was necessary to escalate the movement to use more radical methods and apply more pressure to force the government to concede to our demands
01:12:47
since demonstrations and sit-down strikes no longer bothered the government we felt the next step should be a hunger strike one done told me about the hunger strike and I immediately signed on then we try to persuade the leaders of the independent student unions as some of them were firmly opposed to a hunger strike I think they have a tendency towards opportunism as is so often the case democratic procedures were getting in the way of political action unable to achieve a
01:13:17
consensus within the independent Student Union's the people in favor of a hunger strike bypassed the new organization and made personal appeals to the students on the evening of May twelfth chai Ling and I addressed the students she did most of the talking she said that the government was forcing us to put our lives on the line she was crying emotionally this got everyone really stirred up I said we are
01:13:48
staging a hunger strike in order to reveal the true face of the government and the true face of the people we want to see whether the Chinese have any conscience whether there is any hope for China I said we are prepared to face death for the sake of true life the oath written by our lives will brighten the skies of our country at noon on May 13th the hunger strikers shared a last ceremonial meal the strikers wanted the government to repeal the April 26th
01:14:20
editorial and hold televised talks with the students that morning the government had met one of these demands they'd agreed to talks with the dialog group but by the time this news reached the universities the hunger strikers had already set out for Chanin and square [Music] their declaration born of a tradition of romantic communist rhetoric was both heroic and deeply emotional it even included some lines from Mouse youth
01:14:59
this country is our country this people our people if we don't speak out who will if we don't take action who will at the height of youthful happiness and beauty the hunger strikers proclaimed we must resolutely leave everything behind us mother China witness now the actions of your sons and daughters can you remain indifferent as hunger devours our youth and death approaches Oh [Music]
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my job gee either before tray the one solid Oh [Music] [Applause] [Music] [Music] he's Thunder over here Dinkelman shaddadi the hunger strike could not have come at
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a worse time for the government that week a historic meeting years in preparation was to take place the president of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev was coming to China a grand welcoming ceremony was scheduled to take place in chandaman square which was filled at the moment with thousands of students we are sure talked about often Yalta May 15 the government planned to welcome Warwick off at cam and square everyone knew that the square would have
01:17:14
to be cleared so the students thought but if they saves the hunger strike there the government would definitely respond by May 15 I heard many students talk like this on the afternoon of May 14th less than 24 hours before Gorbachev's arrival the government began talks with the dialogue group the main official representative was Yin Ming foo a leading reformist Minister some students who had initiated the hunger strike were also present were Kai she
01:17:45
was one of them all mushy Jennifer not of the biggest victory of the whole movement it was that our hunger strike force the government to the negotiating table g-good - - we demanded a live television broadcast long ago but the government agreed only to a pre-recorded Roger so we made a concession we felt that a pre-recorded broadcast was in itself a hard-won achievement but the hunger strikers who are waiting at the square did not hear the promise broadcast
01:18:18
[Applause] feeling betrayed many of them rushed to the meeting hall and disrupted this session they wanted poor so the talks were brightened by the students themselves budgets one wishes the occasion I felt that may 14th was a big setback for the student movement after this the students missed many more opportunities by repeating the same mistakes it was the eve of Gorbachev's arrival and talks between the students
01:18:51
and the government had broken down when we speak of the government we're talking about two kinds of people the reformers who were in power at the time and the hardliners who opposed them was in a very precarious situation and came under the constant attack but nights were famous here for social stability so that they could continue their difficult world lemma anyway the hardliners had been using all kinds of underhanded tactics sure that haven't
01:19:22
to get dung Xiao Qing to turn against the reformers and the shol'va but they hadn't seen much success our meal so they wanted to create a massive crisis in order to get rid of the reformers as they had whoo-yah bomb what she need you that feet retention I was worried that reform would be derailed if that happened then all the grand slogan izing about democracy about abolishing dictatorship and so on would simply be a lot of hot air [Applause]
01:20:04
[Music] [Applause] [Applause] the 12 scholars journalists and critics will well-known supporters of liberal reform in China and widely respected they all praised the students but called on them to change their tactics Juventus
01:21:06
Williams for the problem means intellectuals was that they were playing the wrong role they were acting as mediators between the students and the government remade the government agreed a face-to-face negotiations this was the first time in 40 years and we accomplished it we the students acting as an independent political force I thought TT and then when we invited the intellectuals to join us they came to the square and addressed us as children [Applause]
01:21:38
jump-jump-jump eat [ __ ] yo Joe wait come on [Applause] I'm getting into the message we got from them was this you people have gone too far you have to do this gradually listen to your mommy and daddy listen to your government well well all I have to say is what have you done that gives you the right to criticize us but I'm sure the 12 scholars had made an accurate assessment of this situation and they were well intentioned they knew this stalemate would harm the students cause but all the students have put so much
01:22:32
into the hunger strike how could the government simply ignore us if we left it would have been like encouraging a bully emotionally we couldn't accept that you can tell me all you want about what a rational person should do but I say excuse me I can't be that rational because I'm not facing a rational opponent sure you failed completely at the time I thought we intellectuals were caught between a totally irrational government and totally irrational students we do although most students were unimpressed
01:23:03
by the intellectuals attempt at mediation some shared their belief that Gorbachev's visit would help the cause of reform in China as a last minute compromise work I she led the call to make room for the official welcoming ceremony for the Soviet [Applause] we really weren't willing we decided not to move because well I'll quote the words of a foreign reporter he said you are already on a hunger strike what more can they ask of you it's just
01:24:17
how I do on the night of the 14th everybody was waiting for the clearing of the square everyone was Restless why aren't they coming why aren't they coming up some high flyer giorgio de la chaleur sure I saw on the morning of the 15th I phoned a friend we both felt that the situation was very grim if the government ignored the students on May 15th yes they would be put in a very awkward position what were they going to do destroyed
01:24:49
forever if the government can simply stand by a watch while the students lives slowly waste away like this we will have to take even more drastic measures we will set ourselves on fire if the government is callous enough to see these children starve to death then I will be the first to die ok I said this over the last
01:25:22
speakers I said I was willing to be the commander-in-chief I don't remember my exact words I said the only criterion for a person to join the hunger strike leadership was a willingness to be the first to die so that other students could live on [Music] the government chose to cancel the planned ceremony planned for tenements square Gorbachev got only a quick
01:26:02
welcome at the airport [Music] the first visit to China by a Soviet head of state since 1959 had been upstaged by the students [Music] Gorbachev met with party leaders like jazzy young looked to the Soviet Union as an example of political reform and with others by premier leepung who were weary of everything Gorbachev represented both groups in the Chinese government needed the backing of dong
01:26:34
Xiao Qing who was in charge of the military and thus held the real reins of power [Music] by now the hunger strikers had been in the square for two days and their numbers were increasing constantly still there was no official response as time dragged on sympathy for the students and anger at the government grew this year and will commence I couldn't even convince my own students delete the female students cried
01:27:08
whenever I spoke to them so young only she had no papers between themselves in the bare ground it was really a touching sight they were putting their young lives on the line sitting there stubborn the government was ignoring them so I decided to stay on the square we workers
01:27:39
and ordinary people had been looking on students started the hunger strike using their own lives to awaken the whole nation plate people felt their responsibilities and they rose out of tension on May 16th while Gorbachev continued his discussions with the Chinese leadership 300 thousand people marched in the streets of Beijing on the 17th and again on the 18th that number rose to 1 million people [Music]
01:28:11
whoa Joe [Applause] just [Applause] [Music] [Applause] [Music] Oh [Music] was from Suhana I went to the square every day after May 15 because a lot of students from my university were taking part in the hunger strike poison I went there to help them with mystics an
01:29:08
errand I also took part in the picket line to ensure that the ambulances could move freely the students had been on a hunger strike for nearly a week still the government paid no attention to them we said bastards any son of a [ __ ] would have acted better than dung shouting orally Paul [Music] moderate government leaders tried to diffuse the mountain crisis the official media was allowed to report sympathetically on the hunger strike
01:29:46
emergency medical teams were sent in to ensure the health of the hunger strikers [Music] actions like these suggested that the party line was shifting and nobody wanted to be left on the wrong side local party leaders and managers started permitting their workers to go to channel M to show support for the students organized contingents started showing up carrying the banners of their workplaces to participate now was beginning to look not only right but safe
01:30:17
[Music] [Applause] [Music] the spectacle was overwhelming at highly photogenic the fart impressed in Beijing to cover the sino-soviet summit walked into the biggest international media story ever reported out of China what a place what a time what a story it's Friday morning here and this is
01:30:52
Tiananmen Square today it's the People's Square all right more than a million in Chinese demanding democracy and freedom and proclaiming the new revolution unbelievable we all came here to cover a summit and we walked into a revolution [Applause] [Music] between seasons it's a great feeling to get the attention of tens of thousands of people before the moon High students
01:31:24
had been very depressed all of a sudden they were at center stage you had your enough people needed [Applause] they felt a heroic sense of being able to change history soulless zombies Hallman this feeling was a boost of their egos and with their appetites for more just few up doesn't mean there's never been a generation like ours when that mocked the state tell them were to
01:31:55
mock the government Lamacq the leaders aren't you me and there's never been a generation where the scene at the outside world so beautiful [Applause] who without knew the true meaning to begin sorry Jen is China's most famous singer his son nothing to my name expresses our feelings does our generation have anything we don't have the goals our parents head we don't have the fanatical idealism our older
01:32:33
brothers and sisters once head so what do we want nykeya Nike shoes Tony the [ __ ] yeah lots of free time to take our girlfriends to a bar the freedom to discuss an issue with someone and to get a little respect if it was you in this process there was something so pure so unforgettable you know there
01:33:06
were also things I couldn't accept even things I found repulsive don't you but they were all mixed this is history history is this kind of process there's no way to sort things out neatly for example during the hunger strike some students were actually eating colleges they felt that the hunger strike was only a means to an end no our aim is to put pressure on the government so why should we make real sacrifice one student was outraged you
01:33:37
people are manipulating the public he said once you turn your sacrifice into a hoax you lose your moral integrity reason so he wrote in blood I want to use my blood to defend the purity of the hunger strike I was very much this kind of gesture might not have any significant political impact but to me they showed a deep sense of decency something that had become very rare in China during the days of mounting
01:34:10
protests reformist officials faced an impossible predicament they didn't have the power to make the concessions the students demanded yet they knew if they couldn't get the students to leave the square hardliners were more than willing to use force and the had already been mobilized furthermore since the breakdown of the May 14th ox it was no longer clear who really represented the students the only way to communicate with the protesters was to appeal directly to the crowds in the
01:34:40
square on May 16th accompanied by student leader Wanda the reformist official Yemeni foods made such an attempt he was on the verge of tears he asked of the students to give the party reformers more time he even went out on a limb to tell us that the problem of the April 26th editorial would definitely be solved but it would take time he was very sincere he said that the Central Committee had guaranteed the student activists wouldn't be persecuted he said if you
01:35:11
don't believe me you can take me hostage then I said I hope everyone will consider this proposal carefully but the atmosphere was so highly emotional it was impossible for either of us to continue so Yin Ming foo left [Music] only hours after yen main force appearance in the square a letter from job Sooyoung written on behalf of the Central Committee was broadcast in essence it contradicted the April 26
01:35:40
editorial but the strike continued the following day premier leepung summoned a group of student leaders to the Great Hall of the People for a televised meeting some hunger strikers came straight from their hospital beds was it again talika turn for the tuning so we don't know yet William antigen wagon doesn't working
01:36:19
here good job Lugo making here we are thank you thank you - please - for what is easier than how do we what are they well maybe up-tempo you guys are so good about that Oh mm mm oh oh yeah yeah Shindo gon kill acquaintance pink push the sofa woman tells for the day sailor well gee thanks emoji some Madeira family cat family you hadn't told yet
01:36:48
why did you why did you saw the Phantom Zone of counted how many kinda need Italian when you saw the ginger Allah JJ e drunkenness injustice color when Senator Coburn's sure sure laQuan turn on your cigarette okay woman number don't song energy cannon what do you got in the pre-dawn hours of May 19th a worn and Haggard jazzy on appeared suddenly on gentleman square
01:37:19
jaw had lost out to the hardliners in the party on the verge of tears he said to the students we have come too late we deserve your criticism Joe that disappeared from public view that when the reformers were still in power that is to say before jobs a young was removed he was the most powerful person next to done shopping the students didn't accept any of jobs Young's compromises they did no one to cooperate with him in any way
01:37:50
once he was defeated it was the hardliners turned to show how they deal with things [Music] the government was now ready to declare martial law this news was leaked to The Hunger Strike headquarters ahead of time the students suddenly announced the end of their week-long hunger strike and began a massive in an evening of May 19 premier leepung addressed an emergency meeting of State and Army leaders his
01:38:21
speech was broadcast as army units moved toward the city say you can give me a quantity community Nia you change trunk ecology so imaginative over the chain - who me - meaning of the end only wish [Applause] Lucroy speech only served to incite the people of Beijing Street merchants got
01:38:58
on their motorcycles calling themselves the Flying Tigers they sped to the square to report on troop movements convoys were blocked by crowds of protesters and their supporters the
01:39:55
People's Liberation Army had entered Beijing once before in 1949 it was a time when the PLA was welcomed among cities over the years the army was seen as a true People's Army from the people of the people and for the people the party said that the army was like fish and the
01:40:30
people like water fish can't live that of water [Music] the PLA was the guardian of the state protector of the people in times of natural disaster the army was there to help fight floods salmon and fire party propaganda promoted a popular image of the army films fiction and stage
01:41:05
productions celebrated the PLA and created a pantheon of army heroes for mass consumption [Music] in early 1989 the PLA received its annual tribute in the Chinese New Year TV extravaganza [Music] now forty years after being welcomed into Beijing the army was coming again
01:42:39
this time it came as an alien force on the morning of May 20th martial law regulations were announced the police and the army were authorized to clear the streets but people ignored the government's orders the city was still jammed with demonstrators helicopters were the only military vehicles moving pleasure I face was a threat of armed repression the students tried to mobilise even
01:43:29
greater public support just at the moment when the students most needed the support and protection of a mass movement a group of workers declared the founding of an independent Union they set up a public address station at the northwest corner of Kinnaman square I became a broadcaster people sent us a lot of letters for the last 40 years there had been no channel for them to express themselves by broadcasting their letters we gave them
01:44:45
a voice so there are many people like me we wanted to listen to something simply direct and to-the-point the independent workers union not only put forth our own demands it also helped out the students by sending them food in water so follow without the people of Beijing the workers the farmers from the outskirts of the city and the street marches the students could not not
01:45:19
persist for long the new union helped mobilize citizens to block the martial law troops for some 48 hours the troops remain stuck in the sea of the people moving neither forward nor back what I saw an old woman lying down in front of the military truck her face was all wrinkles and she had no friends hi I saw all these ordinary people acting not out of political calculation or with any
01:45:52
ulterior motive but purely out of sympathy and a sense of justice confronting the troops to protect the students on gen'l'men square I was very moved yo live orders sometimes I was disappointed in how foolish and childish the students could be once a couple of them came to me to discuss their plans one claimed to be the commander-in-chief of student security guards tourist map in hand who began to command me see here
01:46:25
for the south of us there are such-and-such troops well the kind of the north of us there are such a--such troops at all four points of the compass cover you line jumpy yeah Kobus yo I was reminded of a movie I saw called from victory to victory in it the Communist commander points to a map and says facing us are this many troops on our flank are that many troops
01:46:55
and so on I watched this kid carrying on like this and felt like laughing he said if we block hated every intersection we'd be spreading our troops too thin I plan to concentrate our forces closer to the square I felt that this matter of military command like a child playing at war came straight out of communist propaganda and I wondered how do I get involved with the massive show of resistance to the army was successful the troops pull back to the suburbs
01:48:02
[Applause] the danger had passed people continue to pour into the streets the workers had helped win a victory for the movement at the square but unlike the students their need to make a living tied them to their workplaces where a union unrelated to the workplace is not really a union at all is that Haman want hot chocolate yet here we were setting
01:48:37
up the union at Tiananmen Square inspired by a student what kind of future could possibly have but there was no way we could organize in the factories what is easier furthermore I knew that the movement is going to come to an end soon all we could do was to try to take advantage of a popular fervor to educate the workers to let them know that the Constitution grants them all kinds of rights in the hot zone none of which have been put into
01:49:07
practice to Misawa this way after the movement in the streets ended and things return to normal some effects of the movement would still be felt Giovani what I mean here is an awareness of constitutional rights workers and peasants would know what rights they should enjoy they'd also know about the legal channels open to them so they can demand those rights meanwhile among the students a struggle over tactics unfolded a woman he changed some of us wanted the students to leave
01:49:45
the square not only out of consideration for the students safety we also thought I was good tactics by leaving the square we would have undermined the rationale for imposing martial law and that might have given the reformers in the government an opportunity many students do not understand that the square is our only stronghold some people have repeatedly advocated that we leave but that could only please the government what makes me really sad is that I am the commander in chief and
01:50:16
I can't let go of this power because I must resist compromise resist these traitors the leaders of the independent student unions of Beijing and of the provinces are all after my power in the intense atmosphere of the square the leaders with more radical agendas had the advantage these were people who had come to prominence through the hunger strike they had not stood for elections on campus their credentials were a determination to make the greatest sacrifices their power base the
01:50:52
continuing acclaim of their followers they set up a new headquarters to defend chandaman square once more chai Ling became commander in chief the commander had control of the loudspeakers the voice of the square that broadcast to the masses [Applause] the continued hardline pursued by the government would further undermine moderation and encourage a hard-line among the students I used to believe
01:51:34
that we could establish democratic processes and then a lot of people could use science to really help our country but now I've come to realize that unless we overthrow this inhuman government our country will have no hope our people will have no hope [Music] after people prevented the army convoys from entering the city there was a stalemate you mom
01:52:15
during this low people were at a loss and didn't know what to do next this happened over and over again during the movement she following each new escalation people fell into a state of confusion dad yuck no one knew what to do or what to expect our data so students simply hung around the square waiting at night music drifted from different parts of the square once I was awakened after midnight by a rowdy
01:52:46
concert people were shouting and laughing making a huge ruckus [Music] losing good shape thumb receivable popular music eight quarters came from the West beyond topless when young people try to express themselves to sing about their own concerns the truly a form of liberalization co-op that's why this music was such an important part of the movement when someone takes part in a rock concert Simon is a little crazy a
01:53:31
kind of crazy feeling it's all about self-liberation notes the what it's about self-expression [Music] the new user came via Hong Kong and Taiwan one of the most famous Taiwan singers was Hoda Jin ho moved to the mainland the 1983 in search of his roots he was a first pop star to appear on national television [Music]
01:54:10
you will see our culture as well as the political system in mainland China suppresses the individual and promotes the collective thoughts collectivism and patriotism are used to make the majority serve the few messages language so we're not allowed to care about yourself you meant okay any concern about national interests simply means that you are selfish agenda to the tune quality and cyclical I call the 1989 movement a self-liberation love
01:54:41
what's the [ __ ] book you know what I don't like calling and founding the People's Republic of China in 1949 liberation don't fool mr. Valda though that did now really liberate the Chinese people hold on I'm not madam gradually people realize we're not really liberated we want to liberate ourselves Mountain later thunk Xiao ping didn't want that either during the movement everyone wanted to release their pent-up
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anger and frustration how come you can liberate me but I can't liberate myself many people in Bajor felt it in those days of protest the sense of being lifted out of their daily drudgery by a cause greater than themselves maybe now through real democracy a perfect Society was possible there was a
01:56:14
heightened sense of community of giving of shared sacrifice it was said that even the thieves had gone on strike for the common good in the vast square in
01:56:53
this space designed to make the many feel as one a space dedicated to the manufacturing of public life the personal gesture now became significant each small act of generosity seeming to prophesy a new way of living together under civility it was a feeling as intense as it was transitory I watched the student movement on TV it was exciting to see so many people in demanding democracy
01:57:23
I was worried by the general intangible nature of their demands in China all information is so tightly controlled by the Communist Party the people whose lives are run by this huge machine have no idea how it really works that's all they usually behave in one of two ways either except party duel passively or summon the courage to try and smash it all to pieces but what happens after it's been smashed faced with the territory and a population to govern the student leaders
01:57:55
on the square found themselves recreating in miniature of all the real-life problems of having and holding power external threats of government repression meant enforcing internal security disagreements with the leadership were labeled betrayal sabotage whether familiar small handful of plotters struggles between the groups vying for power in the square through increasingly ugly season as commanders we tried to
01:58:29
make our decision-making process as open as possible but many students still felt that they had no normal channels through which to express their opinion this welcomes homegirl that some of the even when they wanted to be heard they try to seize power some student Guard units were formed in a bizarre way someone from the square would run to the train station to meet newcomers from the
01:59:00
provinces he denounced I am the commander of the student security guards come with me but where needs so the newcomers who had no idea what was going on would become the guys gar yes about Cuomo's and then they'd surround the student headquarters or the broadcast station and drive away our guards so once they took control of the broadcast station they were in power dongsu often we had to suppress three or
01:59:33
four who's a day and the time I even joked now I finally understand why leepung wanted to suppress the students [Music] once I made a suggestion to the students that was around May 23rd I said why not hold an election at the square or on your campuses hope one student one vote shishun called and elect leaders of the student union but they thought elections
02:00:06
were unthinkable in the middle of all that chaos then a week later I heard that the students were setting up a democracy University in the school I thought honey hole well that suggestion of mine was at the level of a democracy kindergarten even new people didn't like it so now you're setting up a democracy university but no matter what you still have to vote by the end of May the students resources financial political
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and emotional were running low and the square was getting more squalid every day some concerned intellectuals had set up joint meetings involving workers and citizens groups the independent student unions and the defend Hanuman square headquarters they had been meeting regularly since May 23rd wangan acted as liaison among them at a meeting on May 27th chai Ling and funk song doe reported on the situation in the square
02:01:07
the impression we got was that things were really chaotic there was endless factional infighting and sanitary conditions were terrible we began to doubt whether anything positive could come out of this ongoing stalemate so we drafted a proposal the vote in favor of it was unanimous including chai Ling later we held a press conference in the square to announce this proposal after the press conference we Wu raised objections to our proposal
02:02:01
then chai Ling changed her mind and decided to oppose it to the people who made the decision to leave the square on May 30th had a very negative effect on the movement I attended the meeting but I didn't realize at the time how harmful the decision would be the real issue at the meeting was that some people were trying to use the movement to make themselves famous and we oppose this I
02:02:35
want to say to everyone that the square is our only stronghold if we lose it the Conservatives will overrun China I regret we didn't debate the issue further although we had many good arguments in our favor we felt we couldn't compete with the emotional appeal of their position so we gave up I think it should have acted more responsibly after that I thought that any attempt to influence the situation on the square
02:03:06
would be futile there was nothing more I could do so I decided to go back to campus and do what I could to further democracy there why did the students want to stay at Tiananmen when the mood is wiser them because our goal was to awaken the people Tiananmen is the symbol of our People's Republic when we took action there we were telling people throughout the country that there were still some of us who dared to fight that a lot of
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students felt that the longer we held out the more time people would have to think free of them we held a meeting at the square every night two to three hundred representatives from the various universities would get together the issue of whether or not to leave came up almost every time at least 80% my students always voted to stay if we were to stick to the principle of majority rule it was impossible to leave the square the student population at the
02:04:10
square was constantly changing as those who be discouraged or disgusted left they were replaced by enthusiastic newcomers from all over the country at any one time there was a majority on the square who would vote to stay those who thought it best to leave voted with their feet as the students debated whether or not to continue of your occupation of the square a marathon benefit concert was being held on a racetrack in Hong Kong millions of dollars were raised for the
02:04:44
movement in Beijing [Music] [Applause] that night the shipment of tents and other supplies arrived at the square the first installment in a flood of support [Applause] [Applause] [Applause] [Applause]
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I Ling had successfully resisted their proposal to move the struggle back to the campuses and allied herself once more with those determined to hold the square on the following morning she contacted American journalist Philip Cunningham I have been feeling very sad recently the students themselves lack a developed sense of democracy to be
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honest from the day I called for a hunger strike I knew we would not get any results certain people certain causes are bound to fail I have been very clear about this all along but I've made an effort to present a staunch image the show that we were striving for victory but deep down I knew it was all futile the more involved I got the
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sadder I became I already felt this back in April all along I've kept it to myself because being Chinese I felt I shouldn't bad Chinese but I can't help thinking sometimes and I might as well say it you the Chinese you are not worth my struggle you are not worth my sacrifice but then I can also see that in this movement there are many people who do have a
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conscience there are many decent people among the students workers citizens and intellectuals the students keep asking what should we do next what can we accomplish I feel so sad because how can I tell them that what we are actually hoping for is bloodshed for the moment where the government has no choice but to brazenly butcher the people only when the square is awash with blood well the
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people of China opened their eyes only then will they really be United but how can I explain any of this to my fellow students and what is truly sad is that some students and some famous well-connected people are working hard to help the government to prevent it they're taking such measures for the sake of their selfish interests and their private dealings they are trying
02:08:26
to cause our movement to collapse and get us out of the square before the government becomes so desperate that it takes action if we allow the movement to collapse on its own then the government will be able to wipe out all the leaders of the movement as well as those leaders in the party and in the military you dare to oppose them who represent the people done shopping has made it very clear
02:08:56
that there is a small handful of people not only in the party and in society but also among the students that's why I feel so sad because I can't say all this to my fellow students I can't tell them straight out that we must use our blood and our lives to call on the people to rise up of course the students will be willing but there are still such young children wait are you going to stay in the square
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yourself no I won't why because my situation is different my name is on the government's hit list I'm not going to let myself be destroyed by this government I want to live anyway that's how I feel about it I don't know if people will say I'm selfish I believe that others have to continue
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the work I have started a democracy movement can succeed with only one person when chai Ling finished her interview she asked the American journalist to take the tape he had made out to the world she told him she must now leave Beijing and go underground that day students at the nearby Central Art Academy were finishing work on a statue which they called the goddess of democracy [Music] [Music] the next night as the goddess of
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democracy moved from the Art Academy to cheder man a television reporter interviewed chai Ling in one of the new tents on the square she had changed her mind about leaving - you know what he was singing off-key no food good follow me really easy how many ways I sent Anna for saying that he was a black ocean the ocean way boy 18 said to enjoy every sound on the weazy but it's a tiger he's young I have GZ note I went English Shona he was a kind of a person he called Ortega found me in
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ocean science is she just saying they were in that ocean over social issue she or she need how to change YouTube video what you had a function like they don't know each other do they well Oh Janet color you want you to congratulate you could say second chance I can get a chance orchid Asia no it is I was wrong about you could sew it so it's new color - on the whole page your own kind
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Chinchin vanished Amiga mía parties you can know Julian's Atlanta she got a Audrina patio you can charge your semana shop [Music] democracy the ideal everyone talked about she stood facing Mao Zedong on the gate of heavenly peace Mao who had said that he too wanted democracy mass democracy what does democracy mean what was it coming to mean in China what could it be
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made to mean if democracy came to China what would she look like whose features would she wear there seemed a chance at least that her face would look all too familiar although some attacks have appeared in the system over the past ten years the way the whole nation thinks has not yet broken free of the mold created by now in the past century or so the Chinese people are shed blood you
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time and again without losing the courage to fight for their ideals each battle however has ended in a new tragedy another show you can appoint me say what I believe that what the Chinese lack is not ideals but the means through which to realize not courage but the wisdom necessary to achieve their goal what the Chinese lack is not a heart but a mind during the Cultural Revolution
02:13:43
there was only one mind that of Mao after Mao's death hundreds of millions of minds needed to start functioning again it is much harder for the mind to recover right than the stomach [Music] though they gave the movement no new goals or direction the bright new temps and supplies from Hong Kong which included massive infusions of cash would have lifted anyone's flagging spirits [Music] Shankar 30 upon Yoda that it's Asahi
02:14:19
also cashier also on your little sister omission a woman the chin chin Pelican a decent chap and how did you raise the money in Hong Kong several many many ways for example there was one concert concert for democracy in China and that's concert alone 14 million Hong Kong dollars 14 I was raised okay and I've through other channels phone in or amend its many many channels through the Federation of student union
02:14:49
in Hong Kong they raised more than 10 million so we are talking about pipe great you know pay some money here international support suggested the possibility of a real victory for the movement but money did nothing to stop the struggles for power being played out on the square [ __ ] 28 silver than 20 missiles and you in Tacoma hinga Oh minutes were you get to a son well I
02:15:21
wasn't Allah I can what I am commanding jack o maharaja teddy was a australian film film students to quench realized our conscience is like a mature what's her insulin she was eager to wait a panga Hadrian was cute he pulled up on yoga Susanna what is it what you know is he fine he had eaten yet of your son no you're fine humming - is hiding her secretly Louie do a functional figurative Ayton lingering not happen
02:15:54
gonna sue just have enough corner Pierrot Sanada yoga no the Egan some cons Hideo Kojima take EDM or eating Santino - Sam - wha-what one Humberto neither give a presentation billion euro was change a fundraiser woman pelagic race [ __ ] Chitauri shave it off hoping for me into a family children Dima cinta Lincoln is also need is a pancetta onion new high used to simmer and onion journalism filming digital also to your emo that seha don't
02:16:27
sound Arvind I'd only think that Isis shatter - food is I show my appreciation from the teensiest enemies are valid for her shoes and condiments Uhtred eat up eat up now holding on to the square like this was absolutely meaningless and I felt it was harmful to the students cause you're a you need a a friend of mine who was a fairly well-known intellectuals came to see me and as I told him that I had will go into the square every day to persuade all of my
02:16:57
students to leave but he said the students should not leave he said with the students at the front lines will be safe woman's heavily once the students withdraw the government will come after the intellectuals I was furious well sure my said yeah so you want the students to shield you from danger Oh minja what why do you have to hide behind them me why don't you try living on the square like that it's easy for you to talk never miss a meal and
02:17:28
sleeping in your own comfortable home yo you we are after the may 27th decision to leave was overturned my people like chai Lai's students were in a predict they couldn't leave yet by simply hanging on the movement losing its appeal the number of people coming to the square was dwindling visual you can our joint meetings the discussions focused on how to straighten things out in the square students should either take the initiative to leave or stay on but improve their image they
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couldn't afford just to sit there passively come up with anything ideal thumbs rule so I thought nama might as well go on a hunger strike Jewish they are buggin was well you shall Balto Rubin woman padalka if we don't join the students in the square face the same kind of danger young young then we don't have any right to speak On June 2nd lyosha bought and three of his friends set up a tent on the martyrs monument and began their hunger strike
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will may fought [ __ ] through something huge there's no way for me to know whether our hunger strike had affected the government's decision to launch the bloody crackdown did I would feel guilty for the rest of my life from the moment I walked out of the square my heart has been heavy after all that bloodshed on June 4th I've never gotten over this the four men saw their hunger
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strike as a chance may be the last chance to persuade the students to live up to their democratic goals and make their own decisions rather than reacting to escalating government threats in the future we were making a plea to both the government and the students to abandon the ideology of class struggle to abandon hostile attitudes and act with greater tolerance to examine their
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own behavior topically so we felt that under no circumstances should people involved in this movement act in secrecy or use underhanded tactics that's what our fathers and grandfathers have been
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doing all along the 14 the 14 how much for the each here Joseph and did you act like the people you opposed lemon you'll end up just like that and then you have overthrown you thought all the PISA she was to Shabana Jake was it so what's the point why start a movement in the first time I think you know the movie was a Nina the hunger strikers gesture of humility and restraint had the paradoxical effect of revitalizing the flagging protest once again the square filled with
02:21:03
thousands of people ho de gens anthem children of the Dragon was the best-selling pop song ever marketed in China everyone knew the words [Music] for my family on our woman appears in the same way I never thought a hunger strike would have such an impact once again the square was filled with people they hadn't necessarily been attracted by the ideas expressed in our
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declaration I think the majority of them came because we had gone on a hunger strike and especially because the famous rock star Odadjian was involved a chili cottage a pseudo code or Tula table Walker in you wanna hide rival de sangre artist aha moment a Shannon Qaeda danger circus also the dig I mean Zuko's in siento nada soil the glossy rotten Giada feel the Sangam when don't follow
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that phenom brave enough there is Hoda Jim wearing his songs for democracy t-shirts were the dude on he was a real pro in the way he worked the crowd he'd call out do you know the singer dumb legion yes can reply then who would look for the pop stars signature on his t-shirt here she is she's right here the for hunger strikers were soon infected themselves by the intense emotions on Tiananmen Square the very thing they
02:22:59
wanted to tell her to do was it over that don't good you know during the movement I was so often divided hunger strike a declaration I wrote about getting rid of hatred and politics and so on but when I faced that cheering crowd and felt we might actually defeat martial law the voice of reason left [Applause] huge once you get involved in the actual situation it was just so hard to keep a
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cool head to know who the hell you are facing the thousands of people who cheered me on I was completely carried away now here I was speaking at ten events square I felt that my words could sway the fate of the nation in the early hours of June 3rd army units once again attempted to get to the square [Applause] most of the troops weren't in combat
02:24:16
gear but people were outraged to find that some were actually armed protesters confiscated guns cattle prods cleavers and knives and displayed them as proof that the government intended to use violence then they turn the weapons over to the city police when day came crowds had stopped buses being used to transport weapons into the city and were rejecting the soldiers [Applause] troops stationed in the nearby Great Hall of the people were ordered out to
02:25:04
retake the buses they too were surrounded and stopped so the soldier sat down and everyone started to say soldiers and protestors each hoping perhaps to sing the other side into submission they all sang the same few familiar songs from the days of the revolution they sang without the Communist Party there is no new China the PLA anthem and the three disciplines and eight points
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of attention at the fringes of the singing match nervous soldiers collided with excited citizens those hurt rushed to the square to tell
02:26:28
their stories at day's end the troops from the Great Hall of the people were ordered back into the building but though the army was apparently retreating once more a decision had been made for a full-scale military assault [Music]
02:27:12
[Music] Camoranesi fountain tea and potato reporting g ganga tiempo de gran can't you are watching today yo James hacci ETA children chanting Georgia Ichikawa your - teacher - teacher photo [Music] and the evening of June 3rd troops and armored personnel carriers began converging on the central of the city [Applause] far from the square on chang'an avenue the avenue of eternal peace the great
02:27:49
east-west thoroughfare troops encountered crowds at every intersection this time they would not be stopped they don't get home in Google in Russian what toy do vitoli I came out in the winter even after the soldiers opened fire many people couldn't believe they were using live ammunition the crowds blocking the intersections didn't always disperse when fired on or
02:28:26
they ran away it came back to yell at the troops the sound of gunfire attracted even larger crowds bomb [ __ ] [ __ ] we heard over the student loudspeakers that there was a state of emergency in town then they called on people to go and show their support you go to Lucius so he wanted to go at once but I wouldn't let him what your [ __ ] I said you're just a high school student what difference can you make as I watched the government warnings on TV I became very scared but
02:28:59
it just made him want to go all the more I tried to hold him back but he was so much taller and stronger than me I couldn't stop him all along Chang'an Avenue troops encountered barricades and crowds throwing rocks and Molotov cocktails after an intersection was cleared troops moved more quickly a young woman with a home video camera recorded the troops passing a fishing man intersection about two miles west of the square
02:30:12
[Music] found shri woman they at that time all was still quiet at the monument but a Jen said that it was like being in the eye of the storm bian guava moi the hood if a hurricane raged all around where we were by our hunger strike ten things were relatively calm Dirigo this song is called the beautiful chinese the students and the people of Beijing have done amazing things this past month they presented a beautiful
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image of the Chinese to the rest of the world either your DJ John Chi warm and eat RIBA joleigh I'm Joo Dee chung-kai woman did you naturally for the high blue government's intentions are now clear there's nothing more to be said the important thing right now is our unity and the
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improvement of our own organizations in the past I have debated with a lot of people in my right is hope that in a moment like this we can put all our differences behind us we will decide the fate of China the answer is the people will prevail woman t10 Dachau go car you gotta in each year dope or we tired uh-uh around eleven o'clock two hours before
02:32:22
the main body of the troops arrived a single armored personnel carrier drove into the square workers in Beijing residents Stockton's someone hit it with a Molotov cocktail and caught fire fire hardly slowed it down wanna get it frankly I was scared he got out of its way everyone get out of its way son Timmy don't handle the official loudspeakers around the square suddenly came on and announced the emergency
02:33:13
orders of the martial law troops they said that the government was determined to suppress the counter-revolutionary violent rioting at all costs square which had been filled with so many people suddenly was emptying before my eyes only those of us on the monument remain it really was eerie Walmart shop - celery before you Sam that night I was at a friend's house she came home around 11 o'clock and said the
02:33:47
soldiers had opened fire at mushi D intersection at the town Coco jeans from tanks were moving through the streets I knew some of my students were still in the square - Charlotte for I have to go there I arrived at the square around midnight and found all 12 of my students each is your banker they used to I decided to stay with them and do whatever I could to hide prevent bloodshed pushing the crowds before them the troops now reach the stretch of Chang'an Avenue that lies between gen'l'men gate
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and the square what I thought we wanted to see what was happening so we headed south and ran smack into soldiers in there they were shooting into the sky or at the ground they were shooting straight at us five workers beside me fell at first we said come on guys stop fooling around and get
02:35:20
up then we saw the blood some had been shot in the chest some in the head I rushed back to the workers headquarters so I was really scared I still managed to burn all the membership lists by now many people no one knows how many had been killed or wounded so far most of the casualties were bystanders and people blocking the advance of the
02:36:11
troops [Music] having surrounded tenement square the soldiers halted and awaited further orders when taunted by the crowd they fired we're all Oh [Music] sandy enjoy da Bao's Angelo Chan at around 3 o'clock in the morning several thousand students sat down at the monument jerseys they wanted to stay to the very end
02:37:57
shall I summon a lot of blood had already been shed that night but most of the students in a square haven't seen anything so they didn't know what to believe doesn't sound that it will visit everyone imagined if the soldiers would try to drive us away with clubs and we were just sitting there without budging and let the blood flow vision I get what some students handed me a big padded coat and a helmet and said mr. Howe you're too skinny you
02:38:29
won't be able to stand big clubs or rubber bullets Guinea and on Utah here use this coat for padding everyone thought they'd only use rubber bullets then sometime after two o'clock a couple of doctors and students came running back to the monument limit switch aiming and told us that the soldiers were using real bullets - Wow - so things were getting more tense all the time many workers whose friends had been killed in the streets gathered at the monument they were very angry and cried you students can talk
02:39:01
about non-violence all you want will indeed look at our brothers and sisters have been killed homes umizoomi oh yes they pulled knives on us and told us to shut up aha ILU didn't honor you go one guy had a semi-automatic rifle some student guards alike took it from the guy I was terrified any gun shots were fired from the monument kosher the troops were all had an excuse to God everybody down with something so I tried to smash it on the marble railing of the
02:39:33
monument the students at the monument faced a dilemma if they stayed and resisted many might be killed but if they left would they be betraying the many workers and citizens who had already died to protect them and support their stand bulletins Haley we heard Charlie's voice over the loudspeakers on the LOB she said those who want to beat you should leave and those who want to stay should stay the trialing wanted to stand you the trainings down the couple challenge
02:40:05
approach might be disastrous people who wanted to leave couldn't do so safely and those who stayed would be left in greater danger Don should your song down the Eagle we came up ahead plan to negotiate what the troops thought we should send to people and ask Charlie to send another two representatives from the student head um in the country we pull together we would ask the army to give us enough time to leave the square woman Trudy you go on top
02:40:35
send in Bangladesh a ho at around 3:30 the four people on the hunger strike came to talk to the students they said because mud is being spilled all over the city so were you find more than enough blood has already been shed to awaken the people we know you're not afraid of dying but leaving now doesn't mean that you're cowards I'm just hating Google woman Joshua let's eat solids the young Charlie told us she had heard the leading government reformers hope that the students would
02:41:09
stay on the square until daybreak Lois on edge inch I thought you know I'm gonna help Wade you gotta cost as well so I don't care if it's true or not but no leader has the right to gamble with thousands of students lives in this way one syllable finally our student headquarters told that you can go ahead and negotiate Bennet's apartment employees you can't represent us in development so people when visited so we went ourselves we got
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into a van and drove only a few seconds before we saw the soldiers and she all lined up on chang'an avenue as we got closer the soldiers pointed their guns at us then they didn't only what you are up to a few minutes later an officer appears Roger listen to what we had to say and went to report to his superiors he came back and told us that they had agreed to our request ya'll said we hope you can convince the students to leave the square ship see you rest back to the
02:42:12
monument to tell the students their opinions were divided there was little time to debate the troop sequestered in the nearby Great Hall of the People now came out and moved toward the monument soldiers with guns at the ready converged on the students from all directions pas de jure do you see like Jill and Jana the soldiers came right up in front of us they were in full battle gear steady dish the students all stood up I was in
02:42:50
the front row with a gun pointing straight at my chest down being its dad it was only a few inches away the soldiers look really me at the time I was simply stunning I didn't feel a thing I can't imagine what would have happened had they really opened fire well literally I was in charge of the vote to determine whether we should leave I said on the count of three those who want to go shout go those who want to stay shouts stay I couldn't tell which side
02:43:22
was louder what you that you you go don't conscious I knew those who wanted to leave would be a shame he shot very loud fashion there's one two or those who wanted to stay would shout with all their might ensue singing because Susan Zealand of adduser because of this situation I felt that when the two sides sounded about the same yoni was most likely more people voted to leave so I announced the decision to leave [Applause] at dawn on June 4th after occupying the
02:44:23
square for more than three weeks all the remaining students and their teachers and supporters left Chatham and square [Music] [Music] gentleman square was empty but skirmishes between the people and the army were not sporadically for several days there were more deaths on both sides we filed out of the square from the southeast corner well necessary I was near the end of the line when we turned the corner at the concert hall
02:45:47
several tanks came up from behind Juwanna Julie we heard shouts of panic back and saw people scrambling to get away as a tank turned around right in the middle of the crowd then we heard screaming and crying we ran as fast as we could afraid that the tank was going to run over us [Applause] Finch a student I knew he was out from
02:46:29
my university practically crawled out from under the tank some of his classmates were crushed was that a pop isn't that what Salman his father and I waited at the university gate all night chill out mr. Hall noted dorsal had it'll bend at about 6:00 in the morning one of his classmates came back and told us that around 11 o'clock he'd been hit by a bullet and had bled a lot so that's all bad
02:47:06
Chioda thought he didn't know which hospital my son had been taken to what's though it's a couple I knew I'd never see him alive again so so yeah so ha the big magic has kids without the book ever since April when the first wall posters appeared on campus I sensed that something terrible might happen and finally it did not know what a poser it
02:47:40
happened to me a person who had always tried to avoid trouble but thoughts you know what I lost my son [Music] [Applause] within a week of June 4th the army was firmly in control of the city the government then began a much harder job re-establishing its authority and credibility sunako-chan she arrests began
02:48:51
immediately those caught throwing rocks at the troops or setting fire to army vehicles were tried and summarily executed the government compiled wanted lists of leading participants in the movement pictures of the 21 most wanted a siddhis were shown repeatedly on TV when the most wanted list was broadcast I was on a boat bound for Nanjing I wasn't the kind of person who could take life on the run I wanted to return to
02:49:22
Beijing and hide because I had so many friends there I thought if I got arrested so be it as soon as i came back to beijing they got me despite her efforts to dissuade students from her long street action died Ching was among those arrested she is jailed for 10 months I see you Hartman lead woman charging scenes that are seemed important 18 well or some jacket the
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counter-revolution is very peculiar what counts is not your actions but your intention I said my intention was to help our country democratize but they said everything you did shows that your intention was to overthrow the government so you're a counter revolutionary case closed well as I told you when I was in jail I debated with my interrogators insisted that the movement was premeditated and well playing I told them it wasn't I said that if conditions existed in our country for people to premeditate and
02:50:24
plan such a huge movement then the Communist Party would have been long gone managed not a trace lyosha boy the teacher and critic who took part in the final hunger strike was jailed for 21 months in that knowing that it has yet haha he didn't work or fallen to the source or so they can catch it official she loses at once I never fond of shitty sanguchito she's our show to [ __ ] ha the interior Shandong to run the airship we
02:50:54
- don't hide the HIV crying either Janine tree or Janine's hasha tranquility pian to tear the torsion Tara - wah wah angrily Katie aah - you're no joke on you though when I left Jerell way honking its up with you yeah I thought I would never see my daughter again yo ho [ __ ] wouldn't your honeymoon corner she stood in the doorway she grabbed my clothes so I played with her
02:51:37
and said bye-bye what's you no one else was at home if my mother knew I was leaving she would never have let me go I slipped out when she went out to do the shopping I said to my daughter say bye-bye to mama let me pretended not to be sad [Music] after I left Beijing I was among farmers
02:52:18
to the loo they said to me son don't be afraid we'll hide you now just like we hid the Communists during the war against Japan back then weren't the Japanese all-powerful and we didn't let them find the Communists and now the Communists are all-powerful but we'll never let them find you almost as soon as the struggle over Tiananmen Square ended the struggle over the story of what happened there began the official account was this no one had died during the clearing of the square at dawn on
02:52:50
June 4th in the approaches to the square some ruffians who had incited counter-revolutionary violence have been killed as had a small number of innocent bystanders the government went to extraordinary lengths to hunt down and punish anyone whose story strayed from the official lines one outraged by standard telling atrocity stories to a crowd was interviewed by ABC News they don't assume the gene what the Chinese
02:53:22
government intercepted the satellite relay and used part of the interview in a nationwide broadcast it called on informers to turn the man in he was spotted in his hometown hundreds of miles from Beijing chang-geun Shandong FIFA Joe shopping senior society Chow bin was sentenced to
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ten years in prison his case was a warning to all there was only one correct version of events the government's version protesters who had been at the square gave differing accounts of what had happened chai Ling hiding somewhere in China sent her story out via Hong Kong and now here is the full 40 minutes message in which charing recounts what happened between June 3rd
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and June the 4th battalion fortunately fortunately for her [Music] [Applause] [Music] [Applause]
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[Music] [Music] some people said the 200 dot in the sclera another spend 2,000 died there there are also stories of tanks in the square running over students who are trying to leave know what be she's young I have to say that I did not see any of that no mobile I don't know where those people did you I myself was in the
02:56:14
square until 6:30 in the morning woman I kept thinking are we going to use lies to attack an enemy who lies aren't facts powerful enough nubile woman didn't this Univ wanyan she used to tell lies against our enemies lies only satisfies our need to vent our anger but it's a dangerous thing to do maybe your lies will be exposed you'll be powerless to fight your enemy child Ling's 40-minute message ended
02:56:48
with a call for the Chinese people to rise up [Music] [Music] there was no mass uprising in the weeks after June 4th the government tried to clean away the evidence of the movement and its suppression people stopped talking publicly about what they had seen and done in the spring of 1989 at one point everyone got involved in the movement even many party organizations
02:57:46
took part but as soon as it became clear that the government was in control the movement disappeared as quickly as it had emerged so many people started saying the opposite of what they really thought and they rationalized it I have no choice but to go along this situation is not essentially different from what happened at the height of words became more radical day by day actions more irresponsible because in a crowd no one felt the need to take individual responsibility and when the tide suddenly turned they didn't have the inner strength force and by what they
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had said these two extremes are actually two sides of the same coin Anna Karenina the legacy of the movement at Tiananmen is that it made us think there are two ways of going about change one is the large-scale mass movement which aims to solve a major problems overnight the other method is graduating grassroots solidly grounded it looks for cracks in the system and introduces
02:58:49
specific democratic practices which don't necessarily carry a big label saying democracy which one is more effective in changing China in changing the course of Chinese history ba ba ba Jo Meena Bazaar I compared the 1989 tomorrow see movement to an unripe fruit you go guava people were so hungry that they were desperate with usher ahora when they suddenly discovered a fruit they pounced on it and swallowed it whole
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then they got a stomachache and a bitter taste in the mouth hole they go to yolk we all saw the Conger in the fruit you can say they shouldn't have but they were hungry and if you say they should have what they ate was still green inedible shortly after June 4th dung shall clean appeared on television to praise the army change in G chocolate known show
02:59:57
King and presided over a decade of profound economic transformation and he had many times shielded reform from the attacks of hardliners even after the crackdown of 1989 he would continue to push for reforms more than once dong had suffered from the absolute power wielded by top leaders in China but his reforms stopped or of limiting his own power for good and for evil faced with a crisis he reached for the old weapons dong may
03:00:30
have wanted to be remembered as a man who understood the needs of the Chinese people the grand architect of reform but the Beijing massacre will forever be a part of his legacy in the government's account gentlemen square was now
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returned to the people once again the revolution had been sanctified by the blood of martyrs state ceremonies paid tribute to the soldiers who died and honored their families [Applause] [Music] the butt soup with a flat boy yeah all this talk about children being the flowers of the motherland the hope of the nation it's all for show when they feel that it's in the interest of the party in the state they bring on the
03:01:33
bayonets machine guns and tanks I can't watch any of that stuff on TV was so it hurts too much a life is a life why are people treated so differently oh my son asked for was a little equality a little freedom and it cost him his life [Music] [Music] [Applause]
03:02:57
communism was once a shared ideal held in the face of oppression and injustice the actual political and social systems built in its name fell far short of its promise for a long time before the killings in Beijing communism was losing credibility around the world it no longer grips the minds and imaginations of the Chinese people but the Communist Party has not thereby lost its power power without faith leaves a vacuum that can quickly fill with anger
03:03:29
resentment and despair [Applause] go [Applause] [Music] yeah has it you know you hope after my son's death I became suicidal what you know what it is I had to struggle to get through each day what is Santa ho told me in an easy mama I thought about other mothers like myself and young lives who'd lost their husbands yours young children who'd lost
03:05:08
their fathers shins on top I wanted to look for them so that we could give each other comfort and support Sheeta leave it sound that said should we simply wait for another chance to start a democracy element like 1989 would that save China ah but always I don't think so let's see the only way to change our situation is for each one of us to make a personal effort the call me PA every small action
03:05:39
counts when people abandon hope for a perfect future and faith in great leaders they are returned to the common dilemmas of humanity and they're in personal responsibility incivility in making sacred the duties of ordinary life another path may be found so ours on the hundredth day after my son's death I brought his ashes back home home
03:06:13
so he's been here ever since daddy what really papa one day I want him to be buried with the others who fell with him father it's what see why you eat here I'm hoping that day will come and I'm working towards it wait you know Li such [Music] [Applause]
03:07:23
[Music]
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