Pilot Guides World History England

Pilot Guides World History England

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Language: English

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00:02
[Music] [Applause] [Music] that is the English Channel a small stretch of sea that separates England from the rest of the world and it's got to be partly responsible for what
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England and the English are all about this tiny island nation gave birth to an empire that at one time ruled half the world and today almost a quarter of the world's population speak this language how did this country come to exert so much influence small island big history [Music]
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England is a densely populated country that sits at the edge of continental Europe where evidence of civilization dates back to 7,000 BC I begin my historic journey at the site of the Battle of Hastings then I travel along the coast to Brighton I make a quick stop in London and then on to the Yorkshire Moors and then up to England's northernmost border in Liverpool I take a ride on the magical mystery tour and I end my journey in the West country at the mythical birthplace of King Arthur in Tintagel
01:33
[Music] [Music] if there's one year in English history that towers above all the rest it's gotta be 1066 because that was the year that William of Normandy in France who later became known as William the Conqueror for obvious reasons sailed across the English Channel with his army and defeated the English right here on this field in the Battle of Hastings this momentous occasion is faithfully re-enacted every year and just to get
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you in the mood Saxon and Norman tent villages are painstakingly reconstructed so you can get a taste of what life was really like as you wait for the battle to begin so this is chain mail from our period wow it's heavy isn't it would you like to try some on oh I'd love to try on some chain mail all right did people think it was sexy of our chain mail like did women wear it in their boudoir you answer that question yourself in just a moment oh my goodness gracious this is
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very heavy do you feel sexy sorry about that that's Harold the King of England hi Harold I have never met a king before so you're gonna get killed out there yes yeah why is it that Harold got killed do you think in the end but look really yeah and is this just how Harold
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would have dressed do you think this is the sort of style you would have dressed in years just everybody carry a sword no sword would be a rich man's weapon and this sort of sword again is very very exclusive this is based on a late Saxon sword found in Yorkshire oh wow that's beautiful and then does the chainmail protect you from swords going into you it will stop a sword cutting you will stop a spear cutting you because of what they were trying to stop wasn't just a killing
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blow but a small wound in those days you could quite easily get gangrene septicemia hey you were dead three weeks after the battle oh right okay well so buckle good luck I mean well good death [Music] these are the Normans [Music] what do you think about when he's out there in battle don't feed him before he goes because if if he does get killed then that's a waste of food right point
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yeah as dawn broke on the 14th of October 1066 the battle that shaped the course of English history began [Music] evenly matched with about 3,000 soldiers on each side the Saxons for with the English and the Normans who with a French battled all day until finally King Harald of the Saxons was killed William of France then
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took over the throne well Harold's down I guess it's the end was all kind of inevitable really since the Battle of Hastings England has never been successfully invaded though many have tried the channel and the steep white cliffs that line much of the southern coast provides a natural barrier today they provide some of the most stunning coastal walks in England but the cliffs here at beachy head have many uses this is the world's most popular spot for
06:01
suicides it's just very compelling you know you just want to look over the edge the thing is though this chalk crumbles very very easily and sometimes the cliffs just give away at a moment's notice and it's actually really stupid getting this close to the edge especially in such a windy day less than 50 miles west of Hastings is the seaside resort of Brighton by the mid-1800s Brighton was booming
06:33
and this little uninvaded was becoming the biggest cultural and commercial invader the world had ever seen the British Empire was expanding halfway across the globe and its colonies were creating great wealth and when there was money to spend Brighton's was the place to spend it it's funny to think that back in the 1800s this is where England's well-to-do came to play and the grandeur is faded a bit but you get the feeling of what it might have felt like back then a sort of
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19th century Las Vegas Monte Carlo kind of a thing today Brighton still boasts a working vintage Penny Arcade the pinball parlor of the past electricity is life mild electric shocks first became popular as a medical tonic in the 18th century it is electric is electric oh I don't like that prisoners at work it looks like
07:37
this one was made in 1863 oh wow the doors opening and this guy is doing something with a carpet maybe they've built this so that people wouldn't do crimes so they could see if they did a crime where they would end up and what they'd end up doing oh I see all I see what the butler didn't see [Music] brightens fortunes started back in 1811
08:17
when the Prince Regent soon to become King George the fourth built this fantasy pavilion as a holiday home the social in crowd quickly followed his lead and Brighton was transformed from a tiny seaside village into a kind of royal Disneyland a tour of the pavilion will give you a pretty good insight into one of England's most flamboyant rulers Justine [Music]
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this is the musical of George divorce it does give you Sun but an idea about the man does it not very indulgent and why is it is there so much oriental stuff going on here exoticism was creeping the Western world firmly and that Justine is the reason that you get a building which is Indian outside Chinese inside and completely wrong in those cases what kind of person was he complex as capricious in character as
09:19
the building is to look at well-educated charming good-looking I mean you're talking Tom Cruise eat your heart hub broke the heart of every girl was he married twice once secretly and once officially his first wife he loved Maria Fitzherbert his second wife he loathed and she him that's the classic when he was staying at the pavilion and was told that Napoleon had died the courier said Sara your greatest enemy is now dead his reaction as I drove when did she die we
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have now arrived it was not actually his bed he didn't sleep they would have fall straight through that bed he gained a few pounds and weight as he got older he was to master champion in drinking but the best expertise so is there an unsweet bathroom or how did that work the water for the bath was pumped in from Brighton Beach serviceable to heat it to a comfortable temperature he was lifted in sitting on a chair and then they called for succor then Mohammed third oil shampooing surgeon wash the
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king you laugh but suck it then Mohammed introduced divert shampoo into the Western world the word shampoo comes from Brighton today Brighton is V weekend retreat for Londoners Brighton is only 53 miles from England's capital the train journey costs about $20 roundtrip and takes just over an hour the capital city of London or Londinium as it was once known was established by the ancient Romans in the
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first century AD during their four hundred year occupation of England since then it has grown just a little with a population of 12 million London is now the largest city in Europe back in the 18th century Samuel Johnson wrote when a man is tired of London he is tired of life I doubt he put it any differently today every major period in the history of Western civilization has left its mark in this city it's a lot to take in and
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if you're not staying in London long a great way to take in the essentials is a trip down of the River Thames what Samuel Johnson forgot to mention is that it would probably take a lifetime to see everything London has to offer so I've decided to bypass the most popular sights and get off the well beaten tourist trail in many ways this neighborhood is the heart and soul of London and not that many people come here to explore it this
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is the East End the East End is one of London's oldest neighborhoods in the 19th century overcrowding and poverty gave it a reputation for danger and decadence this is where Jack the Ripper prowled and where Charles Dickens set many of his novels the area was heavily bombed by the Nazis during World War two but nothing could suppress it's determined working-class spirit nowadays the East End may seem a little more cosmopolitan but homegrown traditions like the local
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pie and mass shop remain this is a great place to meet the locals and learn about some of the East End's darkest days this is my first time at they don't have knives here I know that East London was very difficult during the war wasn't it
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local broke up a few times did you yeah did you get hit well would they browse the bombs threw me off my bike really riding along on your bike in a bomb would go off yeah yeah we got bombed out five times places where we live really yeah all got very twice really when you
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talk about it you you have such a the community got more friendly more needed and those are over 300 left I still get like did you lose friends and family during the Blitz I think news no family are we asked for each world is getting better or is it
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getting worse I'll do what the world's getting worse even after what you lived through you think the world is getting worse yeah yep everybody wants a good source of a packet is not where I've got a slice I'll share it with you messy I'll share my slice with you hey I'll share my victim [Music]
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if you've got some time on your hands then there's a great way to get around England but not that many people know about and it's been used for hundreds of years this network of canals extends all over the country and for just a few dollars a day you can take a narrow boat from anywhere to just about anywhere and what's great is you find these hidden secret parts of England that you just wouldn't be able to see any other way and I think this is the this the stokke or the stocky stoking iJustine just yeah
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you're John Oh Joe that's John oh and hi brownie hi nice to meet you that's Briony before trains or trucks these were the nation's highways built to transport raw goods like lumber and coal across the country until the railways made them obsolete today the canals are experiencing a mini revival only most people use them for pleasure and not work this is just such a beautiful way to travel do you think that at its best there's no doubt about it
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there is no wait now that Briony and iron could live in a city or a town a built-up area you live in San Francisco I'm sorry you can keep it [Music] about 3/4 mile how did the girls get move before you had the diesel engine they were pulled by horses when you came to a tunnel the horse went over the top and then men were employed to what they call leg the boats through the tunnel
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you'd have to fend possibly possibly before who would lay on the roof of the boat their legs in the air and push their feet against the roof of the tunnel and leg the thing through their partner they would literally move the boat along with their feet leg power that's where the term legging comes from leg it look it like move it Munna get topic go away leg it boys push it I'm
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taking the canals north to Yorkshire where I'll continue overland across the Moors to Whitby before reaching Hadrian's Wall on England's northern border with Scotland Yorkshire is the largest region in the country and I intend to cross it in style in England's one and only hotel on wheels [Music] oh this is great hi little dining area yeah we have a system traveler you have
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breakfast Wow okay it's a wagon now you're right when was this built 1957 do you though this is your bathroom you're in the cabin here's the bathroom with the shower well is that for everybody on board no just the tool cabinet upstairs we have another one down how many people fit we check eight altogether hey I see I'm coming straight through right here yeah just help the door okay I'm gonna get in there you're the top bunk that's great okay there's your bag
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thank you thank you wash basin right Thank You Maura Oh fantastic I'll sleep on it for a coffee alone when you're ready okay thanks bye 554 square miles of Yorkshire is covered in low brush land called Moore's hundreds of years ago this was all forest but the trees were cut down so that sheep could graze the Moors are now a thriving home to flora fauna and of course York Sherman distinctive we're not your people we're supposed to
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be sort of a hardy group of people you know I mean we've got a reputation being rather dour the watchman's nickname is knotted take a tyk he know if you actually look in the dictionary what a tyke is it's a churlish mongrel dog or person ill-natured [Music] on york sure's north east coast is the small seaside town of Whitby its fortunes took off during the great whaling boom in the 18th century transforming the town from a small
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fishing community to an important harbour and it was here that the famous world explorer Captain Cook took his first seafaring steps on his way to becoming a national hero [Music] towering over this very quaint very cute little town of Whitby is this Gothic Abbey and st. Mary's Church and I've been wanting to go up there all day and now I found I have to climb up 199 steps
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to get there 3 4 36 37 38 61 like so many Abbey's around the country Whitby Abbey fell into decline during the reign of King Henry the 8th Henry broke with the Catholic Church because he wasn't permitted a divorce from the first of six wives in defiance he turned the country Protestant got a divorce and stripped the Abbey's of their wealth leaving them to decay
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[Music] Whitby's eeriness makes it a mecca for gothic horror fans after all it is the setting for one of the most famous horror stories of all time Dracula what better place to spend Halloween and in Whitby the city that inspired Bram Stoker to write the novel Dracula and there's this tour guide named Harry who supposedly gives a really good tour of all things Dracula and were supposed to meet here at the whale bones I have a feeling that's into
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a group over there and I welcome you all to with me here um stoical came to Whitby because some holidays in the 1890s he was resident in the Royal Hotel and there he started to put pen to paper to write the novel Dracula let's go and find out what the Dracula tour shows how much of Stoker's novel was based on actual events in the book Count Dracula arrives in Whitby aboard the Russian ship Demeter which run aground on turtle sounds off that
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ship of the large black dog with saucer-like eyes and finally teeth the gone run helter-skelter of the 199 church stairs and go and hide in the graveyard ten years before stalker brought his book a Russian ship actually did run aground down there Ontario Sam's the difference between fact and fiction was that in the fictional version Stoker had the captain dead and tied to the wheel clutching his crucifix in real life
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the captain was charged with being drunk and disorderly welcome to the screaming tunnel so said because if you ventured in here after darkness is fallen it might means Northumberland is England's northernmost County and home to one of the greatest engineering feats of the ancient world Hadrian's Wall the wall was built by the Emperor Hadrian in the 2nd century AD for the Romans it clearly defined the northernmost borders of their empire for the English it represented the awesome
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power of the Roman army to the ancient Romans that was wild savage Scotland and this was England a place the Romans felt they could civilize more easily Hadrian's biographer wrote that this wall was built to separate the barbarians from the Romans and symbolically this wall represented the end of the expansion of the Roman Empire and today nearly 2,000 years later this boundary between Scotland and England hasn't really changed all that much the wall stretches 73 miles from coast to coast patrols were stationed every
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quarter mile and gateways every mile allowing the Romans not only to ward off barbarians but to control and tax trade across the border today it is patrolled by some very enthusiastic tour guides what are you dressed as me I am just Roman soldier a local Roman soldier I enlisted down in Yorkshire so you're not familiar then no no no the Romans conscripted you when they came here is that how it works well
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not really conscripted me I just volunteered I thought well they have a lot more than I have I think I love some of that so what's your name jessica's jessica's jessica's what is that but these just call new this is the thing that really told us what to do this goes out of bed in the morning no problem whatsoever don't ever go sure yeah I've never played a chord what's it
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called a call new calling you yeah yeah right that'll get anybody out to beg you hold it alright you show you show me how it's done basically it should be something like this [Music] the Romans left the English an incredible legacy of engineering and 1600 years later the English took it to new heights in 1830 the first steam
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train was launched and there's still a few of them around today simply because so many people love them so much so what is it that you love about the steam train it's just really nice to hear of it I suppose I think I like the engineering we just love all those shiny bits that whiz around and they just are beautifully made so what are all those numbers these are the steam trains right so you keep track of all the trains that you see oh yeah and I just go along for the ride [Music] I'm now traveling south on the Carlisle
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to settle railway and then west to the coastal city of Liverpool [Music] would you like a cracker with some caviar oh no no really I could by the time Queen Victoria took the throne in 1837 Britain was the greatest power in the world and the steam train was a potent symbol goods could be transported faster and cheaper and people could travel in a speed and luxury never
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before dreamed of Britain was leading an industrial revolution and the Carlisle to settle railway was one of its impressive achievements [Music] at the height of the British Empire Liverpool was one of the world's busiest and wealthiest ports trade was pouring in from her colonies and at the same time there was a huge influx of
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immigrants from the East Indies the West Indies India and Ireland and for many of these people their very first view of England would have been of Liverpool coming in as I am now on the River Mersey Liverpool's prosperity began in the 18th century when it became a key player in the triangular slave trade between Africa and the American colonies by the 19th century the emphasis switched to Goods and passenger travel securing the city's place as a precious jewel in the English crown Liverpool's population
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surged as masses of emigrants heading to the American colonies never quite made it there and settled here as a result the cultural melting pot so evident in Liverpool has given the whole country a very unique flavor [Music] great thing about Liverpool in all big cities in England is that you can go to any of these sort of fast-food restaurants they look like nothing and there's just this amazing variety of food hi um what would you recommend sort of kind of
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a good yummy something that's not it's not a hamburger or pizza okay okay well the most public dish at the moment that's good yet is the the chips and Co sauce chips and car sounds good okay now that's that that's really typical right they take something like curry and they mix it with something really English like chips this is my first tutorial chips ever prepared well I hope you like it mmm nice nice yeah tastes like curry not too spicy because right and what do you think about people in England thinking
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that this is Indian you wouldn't get a doubt in India I think what's happened is over a period of time when the immigrants came just country they actually brought with them you know their own types of tastes and slowly the English have taken its up so you end up with something that's quite unique but it's not authentic right it's not English it's sort of a dream by the end of the first world war Liverpool's fortunes had all but collapsed air travel and new methods of shipping plunged the city into poverty but when working class culture exploded
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onto the scene in the 1960s Liverpool was given a second chance with a little help from her friends The Beatles Liverpool still attracts people from all over the world but no longer for its ports these days people come from far and wide to take the magical mystery tour and I've got a ticket to ride hopefully down Penny Lane Hey Jude are you excited welcome to the magical mystery trail under the course the Beatles of the number one tourist attraction in the city and a trip on the
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magical mystery tour bus will give you a taste of the humble beginnings that inspired the Fab Four and their music [Applause] [Music] [Applause] this is two five one memory revenue where John with it was here the Leonard McLeod near partnership was born from John - mouths - Paul McCartney's house it's a long winding
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for become anemic few number 20 for control many of the rehearsals took place here for the bank and over 100 songs were written here when did you see the Beatles I build them in 1964 when you wanted a screaming girl I was I didn't intend to be carried along on a wave at exterior room what do you think it was about them that you know they were so crazy I don't know they had a presence yeah the real stage presence and they seemed ordinarily they have no
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they didn't see my big stars I suppose because they came from supply like Liverpool and they were quite working [Music] John Lennon's earliest memory in life he was four years old he was playing in the back garden of his auntie Mimi's home a building behind strawberry field children's home and he heard the sound of the Salvation Army brass band play he asked his aunt - Mimi what it was all about Mimi told John when they have a
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party the band play in the garden he watched the band play and he had an idea I'd like to be in a band one day and it all started here at strawberry field children's home [Music] hundred local man swayed in Liverpool at that time and I was the best drummer in Liverpool but the people's wanted Ringo it could have been me [Music] [Applause]
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I'm traveling south from Liverpool into the West Country stopping at long-lead Estate and Stonehenge before heading to Glastonbury and uh Therese st. Mary ending my journey at Tintagel castle on the coast of Cornwall the best way to get off the beaten track is by car renting a vintage model like this 1969 Morris Minor is a great way to get around as working class culture boomed in the 1960s the fortunes of England's upper
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classes were on the wane taxes and declining public support forced much of the aristocracy to open their homes to a paying public long late house was the first to do so allowing commoners like you and me to wallow in its splendour his lordship 7th Marquess a fat actually still lives here and I had heard that on occasion it's possible to come into him on one of these tours the house was
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built in 1568 for Sir John thin and is considered one of the finest examples of Elizabethan architecture in the country knighted in 1547 thin saw the house as a fitting seat for his newly titled family the Great Hall which is very great it's the only really Elizabethan part of the house everything else was slightly altered as time went on and what do I call you Alexander yes do I call you Lord Alexander or Mark
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Chris Alexander or I'm happy without a clock really I don't have to curtsy or anything I can't manage the bow but you are you are a Marquess yes so what's the difference between Marquess and a lord and a Duke well Lord covers the whole range although you don't know a plat would you kill time well from king - Prince - Duke - Marquess - Earl - VY
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count - baron mister here we have the family tree that goes right the way back to the earliest name on it is Tacitus the Roman historian but there's lots of other names like Charlemagne you're a descendant of Charlemagne just amongst others it won't the freedom but first there's like the 1066 years yep they were fighting there and they were both grandpa fathers that's extraordinary and
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so where are you then you over own family Sanderson 7th Marquess yes of bad that's you yes you re English history so Alexander why did your father choose to open his home to the public to keep the roof honest which is the concise answer that it's very expensive to keep all the repairs going and to think of doing that without there being money coming in somewhere would have been something he
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couldn't answer them sustained why was it that the aristocracy was losing their money and having to open their homes well there was taxation and their style of living was perhaps too extravagant to to maintain this is the part of the house where I live you did all these this stuff oh yes I do all the murals I do to choose the colors for the walls I mean you've done something that's quite extraordinary well it's a 21st century addition to two
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lobbies I think yes it is a 21st century so are you what we Americans would call an eccentric Englishman well the label gets put on me but I prefer individualist [Music] as the Marquess of Bath will tell you the West Country was once the anglo-saxon kingdom of Wessex an area steeped in mystery and legend this is the mythical heartland of the country and home to some of the earliest signs of civilization in the world oh my god
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there it is there's Stonehenge God I've seen that in so many books oh I just got here it's closing in 10 minutes oh they're incredible these are beliefs have been built like three to five thousand years ago and nobody knows who built them or why some of these stones came from hundreds of miles away it's big mystery ancient burial ground holy
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temple astronomical observatory or alien landing pad whatever stonehenge was it is truly awe-inspiring [Music] [Applause] [Music] nearby Glastonbury is the undisputed center of spiritual England and is considered one of the oldest religious sites in the country pagan and Christian pilgrims have been coming here for centuries but these days the New Age
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pilgrims seem to outnumber the lot [Music] Glastonbury is legend city and one of the legends is that this tour which is the Celtic word for Hill is Avalon way back when it's thought that these lowlands were all water creating the perfect conditions for Avalon which is a hill rising out of the mists and their other meanings of Avalon it's thought to be a state of mind it's the veil between this world and the next it has associations with King Arthur and there is a great deal of archaeological evidence to show that this was a site of
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pre-christian ritual and it is a proven fact that it takes about 25 minutes to get to the top legend has it that King Arthur England's ancient mythical ruler a man synonymous with all that is good and true came here in search of the Holy Grail well the tour hasn't lost its mystic pulling power and spiritual travelers still flock here from all over the world made it to the top of the tour I'm on
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the top of Avalon it's amazing what's going on [Music] we say I'm Viviana Hale to be a lot which is our sacred trust the evermore how to be oh excuse me am I just really lucky to find you here do you do this all the time what are you
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what do you do your druids and Druidry these basic paganism which is the indigenous religion of these aisles and that's what we're doing we're we're celebrating nature that's what dudes do I'm truly king called off yeah yeah yeah and I've got my own order which is good the law earth or in war bad so you sort of a reincarnation well that's my belief but I'm not going to convince anyone that it's true all I'm out to convince people is this is what Arthur is doing now would you like to join with us
40:22
[Music] we honor I'm glad that you don't after Vegas I have the under a rice warrior [Music] [Applause] penis [Music] pagan rituals have a sneaky way of turning up in most celebrations in England and the traditions in uh Therese st. Mary and Devon cher are no exception this might look like a peaceful Devonshire town but tonight all hell
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breaks loose it's Guy Fawkes night the biggest national celebration of the year in England and this town is famous because it celebrates it in a rather unusual way and I hear it gets very messy so I thought to dress appropriately happy Guy Fawkes in 1605 a group of Catholics conspired to blow up the staunchly Protestant King James the first and his government one of the conspirators Guy Fawkes was caught
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red-handed with explosives in the cellars of Parliament his arrest and execution is celebrated nationwide every year on November 5th with the burning of bonfires crowned by an effigy of Guy Fawkes himself that exciting making me shake go up and play this is what everyone's been waiting for this is what this town is famous for no one really knows when the tradition of tar barrel rolling started many
42:39
believe it originated from pagan rituals to ward off evil spirits whatever the reason over 20,000 thrill-seekers come here every year just to witness the mind-boggling heroics of the locals Kidd way up to the men's ice got no chance great-granddad no it's going yes like is it as scary for you as
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it is for me love it love it so the women are gonna be rolling the tar barrels now always do they always have their ways that yeah how long have you been doing this Smosh best are you [Applause] the grand finale begins at midnight in the main square when the Big Daddy barrel of the Maul is carried around until it drops
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[Applause] [Music] [Applause] [Music] my journey ends here at Tintagel castle in cornwall the mythical birthplace of king arthur on the southwestern coast of England this seems a fitting place to say goodbye to this small island the thing is the more I travel the bigger this island seems to get and no matter where I end up there's always some really good story to tell
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history is alive and well in England and to experience it you don't really need to do very much more than just show up the past feels present here which is what makes this little Big Island so magical
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[Music]

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