You Are Immune Against Every Disease

You Are Immune Against Every Disease

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Language: English

Type: Robot

Number of phrases: 319

Number of words: 1911

Number of symbols: 8773

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00:00
you're not a person you're a planet made of roughly 40 trillion cells there is so much of you that if your cells were human sized you'd be as big as 20 mount everest for your creepy crawly inhabitants this makes your body an ecosystem rich in resources and warmth and space a perfect place to move into and have a family while some of these guests are welcome most are not your immune system is the
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guardian of this planet the force tasked with protecting yourself against the constant danger of invasion unfortunately your enemies in the tiny world have a huge advantage [Music] consider the effort it takes to make a single copy of yourself and your trillions of cells first you need to find someone who thinks you're cute date and be awkward and if things work out in a complicated dance two of your cells merge together
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then you need to wait for months while the cell multiplies over and over until it's released into the world as a human being and even then you only have a mini copy that needs years to become remotely useful a bacterium consists of one cell it can make a fully grown copy in about half an hour a virus can turn into hundreds within hours and billions within days your enemies multiply orders of magnitude faster than you even worse for
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a bacterium or virus your body is a hostile ecosystem applying selective pressure because they go through so many generations so quickly eventually by pure chance there will be an individual that mutates and adapts in just the right way to resist your defenses and then multiply quickly again in other words you're facing a sheer endless variety of different enemies and you're too slow to keep up with their evolution this is bad luckily your immune system is just about
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the most amazing thing ever the second most complex biological system known to us after the human brain and so sophisticated that we still haven't discovered all its secrets since it's so complicated we have to simplify and focus on one thing at a time if you want the full story wait for the announcement at the end of the video okay so why are we not all killed by some new bacteria or virus in a nutshell you actually have two immune systems the innate and the
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adaptive immune system the innate immune system was ready when you were born it mostly consists of general purpose soldiers we introduced them in the last immune video the adaptive immune system carries two types of cells t-cells and b-cells that are your super weapons and are incredibly effective and deadly for your enemies these cells are complicated to produce and take a lot of time to deploy but once they're ready they pack a real punch what makes your adaptive immune system
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so powerful is that it has the largest library in the universe it has an answer to everything you have at least one of these super weapon cells inside you to fight the black death the coronavirus and the first deadly bacteria that will emerge in a city on mars in 100 years this makes it possible for you to counter the ability of bacteria and viruses to change so rapidly how is this possible to understand what's going on here we need to take one step back
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all organisms on earth are made from the same basic parts mostly proteins proteins are the building blocks of life and can have billions of different shapes you can imagine them as 3d puzzle pieces there are billions of different puzzle pieces your enemies can use to construct their bodies why is this important because proteins are in a way the language of the micro world cells don't have eyes or ears so to tell friend from foe they have to touch them
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and recognize if their protein is part of a friend or part of an enemy recognizing means that cells have countless tiny devices called receptors that are able to connect with a specific protein puzzle piece so your cells have tiny puzzle pieces on their outsides that are able to click together or recognize other protein puzzle pieces when a cell connects together with a protein and recognizes it as enemy it knows that it has to attack only if your cells can make this distinction between friend or foe is
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your immune system able to fight an invader but since there are billions of possible protein puzzle pieces this means there are billions of possible enemy puzzle pieces this is also one of the reasons we still have to deal with diseases like the flu each year the influenza virus mutates very rapidly and so the proteins that make up its hull constantly change a tiny bit the soldiers of your innate immune system have a large number of the puzzle pieces for common bacteria and viruses memorized that's why they are your
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all-purpose weapons but they are ineffective against many billions of mutations and adaptations that your enemies can develop so the reason you are still alive is that your adaptive immune system is able to recognize between 1 billion and 10 billion different enemy protein puzzle pieces which is enough to be prepared for every possible enemy but how is this possible how could your immune system possibly have this much of a variety to be prepared for every possible protein puzzle piece
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well the cells of your adaptive immune system found a cheat code mixing and matching their own genetic code to create this stunning variety of receptors the details are way too complicated for this video but in a nutshell your adaptive immune cells have official permission to take a tiny part of their own genetic code and mix it in random ways to create billions of different receptors a good way to explain this is by asking you to imagine an army of cooks with each of them wanting their own special recipe
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they have 100 different ingredients to choose from each ingredient stands for one tiny piece of genetic code in this metaphor so each cook takes a few random ingredients and randomly mixes them together maybe tomato chicken rice and half an onion as entree marshmallow pepper strawberries and a quarter banana as a dessert or cucumber beef potatoes and two carrots and blueberries chocolate and cream with a pinch of cinnamon even with slight variation and with only
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100 ingredients there are billions of possible recipes and likewise with just a small selection of gene fragments your cells create billions of receptors the details of this are so cool that they should get their own video or their own chapter in a book in any case by mixing up gene fragments you get up to 10 billion different combinations so in the end you get billions of immune cells and each of them has one specific and unique receptor the dish from our
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metaphor that is able to recognize one specific protein puzzle piece in total you end up with at least one cell for every enemy that could possibly exist but here we run into a pretty dangerous problem if your adaptive immune system is making weapons that can attack every possible protein puzzle piece in the universe wouldn't it also make some that can attack your own cells yes it happens all the time this is so fundamentally dangerous to your survival that you have a whole organ that does nothing but work on
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preventing this the murder university of your thymus your thymus is a chicken wing-sized organ above your heart and you've probably never heard of it interestingly your thymus is one of the reasons why your immune system weakens as you age because it's in a constant state of decline once you reach puberty but what does the thymus do in your murder university your immune system is putting your adaptive immune cells through an intense and deadly curriculum
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basically it's showing them all sorts of protein puzzle pieces that are used by your own cells to see how they react when a young cell recognizes a body puzzle piece and wants to attack it the teachers cells order them to kill themselves and they are eaten up and recycled the immune system is so particular about this process that around 98 of your adaptive immune cells that enter murder university die there two percent graduate and get to do their job of protecting you for real
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if this process goes wrong and the cells escape that can recognize your own protein puzzle pieces this can lead to autoimmune disease where your immune system attacks your own body from the inside and this again is another story for another time okay let's summarize your immune system has two parts one that defends you right after birth and one that carries the largest library of super weapons in the universe but needs to boot up first to create billions of different super weapons your adaptive immune cells
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recombine a part of their genetic code to create a breathtaking variety of attack weapons then they enter a murder university that only two percent survive to make sure they don't attack you and then you end up with billions of different cells that in total are able to protect you against every possible enemy in the universe now wait a second if this is all true why do we get sick at all why was a new disease like covert 19 able to kill millions of people well everything we've just learned about
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is a tiny tiny window into the amazing struggle for life and death that plays out every day inside your body and there are so many amazing details and questions here how does your body actually find the right cell in time to protect you how do your enemies fight back and overcome your immune system anyway and what about all the things that didn't fit in this video well today finally marks the release of immune a journey into the mysterious system that keeps you alive written by
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philip detmer the founder and head writer of quartz kazakhs first we had to push the release back because of cargo trouble and then because so many of you pre-ordered that we didn't have enough copies for the original launch day thank you so so much for that immune tells the epic story of your immune system and will forever change how you think about your own body how you experience being sick and healthy the book is written to be as fun and easy to grasp as cosguard videos but is able to dive way deeper into its subject so go on a journey through the hidden
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microverse within yourself witness deadly wars between billions of invaders and cells learn how your immune system actually works and protects you from cuts cancer and covet never before have we so urgently needed to learn about how immunity works immune is fun and great to look at and it even smells good follow the link in the description to order it today this is the end of a decade-long personal journey working on this so thank you all so so much for your
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support and thank you for watching and reading [Music] you

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