HIDRÁULICA BÁSICA | INTRODUCCIÓN | CONCEPTOS | APLICACIONES

HIDRÁULICA BÁSICA | INTRODUCCIÓN | CONCEPTOS | APLICACIONES

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Language: English

Type: Human

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Number of words: 1079

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00:00
Hello friends, I hope you are well. Fluid mechanics is the branch of physics that studies the movement of fluids, as well as the forces that cause it. Within the study of this branch, are the gases that is studied by pneumatics. And the liquids that are studied by hydraulics, of course, within this there is also hydraulic oil. In this video we are going to focus on the study of hydraulics. The fundamental basis of hydraulics is hydrostatics, which studies the behavior of liquids at rest, and hydrodynamics, which studies the movement of liquids. Etymologically, Hydraulics refers to the study of water in pipes. In addition, hydraulic oil is derived from this, which studies fluids based on petroleum derivatives such as mineral oil, for example. Here a hydraulic circuit is shown,
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which is composed of: A tank or reservoir, which is responsible for storing the fluid. A hydraulic pump, which converts mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. They provide us with an adequate pressure and flow of liquid in the circuit. The mechanical energy required by this pump is usually supplied by an electric motor. Safety valve: It is a pressure limiting valve , it fulfills the function of preventing the pressure in the system from increasing to a previously defined value. Distributor valve: in charge of controlling the flow and distributing the fluid to the entire circuit. Hydraulic cylinder: It is an actuator that performs the desired work. In addition to all these elements, we have the pipes, which is the fluid distribution network to different points. Before continuing, I will explain some basic concepts such as fluid,
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flow, properties of liquids, physical quantities and some applications of hydraulics. A fluid is a substance that continuously deforms when subjected to a shear or tangential stress, no matter how small. All fluids are made up of molecules that are in constant motion . As I had already mentioned, this fluid can be gas or liquid, but only liquids are studied in hydraulics. A liquid has a defined volume and adapts the shape of the container that contains it. In a hydraulic circuit, this fluid can reach all points thanks to the pressure exerted on it. Flow is defined as a fluid in motion. There are two main types of flows. Laminar flow characterized by an orderly and smooth movement. The flow of this fluid moves in parallel sheets without intermingling. While a turbulent flow, it is called the movement of a fluid that occurs in a chaotic way, that is, the particles
03:11
move disorderly and the trajectories are forming small eddies. Also, a flow can be permanent or stationary / variable or transitory. Let's look at some properties of liquids that are considered in hydraulics. Incompressibility, as is already known, a liquid is not very compressible so in hydraulics it is considered as incompressible, in addition, if a pressure is exerted on a liquid, as shown, this also exerts an equal pressure in all directions of the container containing it. The fluidity of a liquid is closely related to its density and, therefore, its viscosity. Specific gravity: It is generally considered constant, even though I varied the temperature. We also have isotropy and cohesion. Fiscal magnitudes The basic magnitudes of the international system used in hydraulics are: length, mass, time and temperature. From them
04:19
are derived the other important magnitudes in hydraulics and hydraulic oil such as: surface or area, volume, force, pressure, speed, flow and other magnitudes. Let's see how some of them are applied in hydraulic circuits. Pressure is defined as the force applied per unit surface or area. The units of pressure according to the international system is the pascal which is equal to N / m2. In the circuit shown, let's see how force is transmitted and with what intensity. I am going to assume that point 1 is located on the small cylinder plunger, which for this example would make a bowler. Point two is located on the plunger of the large cylinder which is the working cylinder. Then, the pressure at point 1 is defined as the force applied to the cylinder plunger per unit area of ​​the plunger in contact with the fluid. And the pressure at point two
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is the resultant force that pushes the working plunger up per unit area in contact with the fluid. These two pressures must be equal if the fluid is to be considered a perfect liquid. And from there you get the relationship of forces and areas as shown. This relationship obtained obeys the Pascal principle. Let's see how it works quickly. When the lever is lowered, the cylinder plunger moves downwards, thus sending the fluid to the working cylinder. By raising the lever the cylinder sucks the fluid from the reservoir to be used again. Thanks to the non-return valves that are located in strategic points, we can carry out this work. When we lower the lever. The pressures at points 1 and 2 are equal. To drain the fluid from the working cylinder, it can be done by opening the regulating valve. In a hydraulic circuit it is also possible to evaluate the flow at certain points. If
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the energy that the fluid possesses remains constant throughout its path then we could say that Bernoulli's principle is fulfilled. This hydraulic circuit is very similar to those found on a hydraulic jack that most of you are familiar with. Possibly in a future video I will explain in detail how it works. And to finish with this video let's see some of the applications of hydraulics and hydraulic oil Industrial applications: there are an infinity of applications in the industry, among them we have in the automation of industrial processes such as driving, positioning and machining elements or materials typical of the production line. Mobile applications: hydraulic oil is widely used in this type of application and is found mostly in heavy machinery. Aeronautical applications: we find them in the ailerons of the airplanes, in landing gears, brakes, simulators,
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aeronautical maintenance equipment, etc. There are many more applications of hydraulics in different sectors ... But in this course I am mainly going to focus on the application of hydraulic circuits that are used in production and automation lianas. Well friends this would be all, in the next few days I will be uploading more videos related to this topic, subscribe to the channel to be aware of everything ... See you later bye bye.

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