'Humans Are Not Equal': The Dishonest History of Race

'Humans Are Not Equal': The Dishonest History of Race

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00:20
race is such a pervasive idea in modern discourse racists nowadays and there are academic counterparts try to push the idea of race realism or racialism the idea that humanity can be easily divided into well-defined categories races that are both broad and clearly defined said races are different from one another and that these differences can determine the abilities and behaviors of individuals or groups that belong to that race where did these ideas originate though I mean
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these sentiments have existed for a long time let's take a look at this quote from Aristotle those nations are full of spirit but somewhat deficient in intelligence and skill so that they continue comparatively free but lacking in political organization and capacity to rule their neighbors fairly interesting isn't it how far back race realist tendencies go when talking about blacks mmm wait I've been a little cheeky notice that I haven't provided the full quote here is the full cooked the nation's
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inhabiting the cold places and those of Europe are full of spirit but somewhat deficient in intelligence and skill so that they continued comparatively free but lacking in political organization and capacity to rule their neighbors he's talking about the whites of Europe not of blacks that was just a little exercise to show how even you and I may have been affected by these notions despite us not believing in them the very fact that a couple of thousand years ago the supposedly unalienable racial hierarchy was different to those of modern people who subscribe to such
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ideas should be proof enough as to how ridiculous it all is race especially the modern concept is a purely European invention with conveniently Europeans being at the top of satire are key nonetheless let's take a look at the semi modern history of race realism now attitudes of race realism racialism were pervasive especially in supposedly educated circles since before the French Revolution even amongst the more liberal American leaders such as Lincoln there are statements such as this there is a
02:25
physical difference between the white and black races which I believe will forever forbid the two races living to on terms of social and political equality and in so much as they cannot so live while they do remain together there must be the position of superior and inferior and I as much as any other man and in favor of having the superior position assigned to the white race even in academic circles were giants like Charles Darwin stood such sentiments were prevalent and even presented a scientific fact down with himself wrote about a future time when the gap between
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human and ape will increase by the anticipated extinction of intermediates such as chimpanzees and Hottentots that being a racial term for the cahoy a nomadic tribe of people in South Africa the break will then be rendered wider for a will intervened between man in a more civilized state as we may hope than the Caucasian and some ape as low as a baboon instead of as at present between the Negro or Australian and the gorilla before we get into the deeper stuff
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let's see what concepts of race existed among supposedly educated European Minds Carl Linnaeus a Swedish physician in his 1735 work systems of nature divided humanity into five races the americanus red color a righteous black straight thick hair stubborn Zyliss free painting himself with red lines and regulated by customs Lera pianist white sangli brownie with abundant long hair blue eyes gentle acute inventive carved with clothes
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vestments and governed by laws the Asiatic as' yellow man and colic stiff black hair dark eyes severe haughty greedy covered with loose clothing and ruled by opinions interestingly the Aussie Atticus James from brown in the first edition of systems of nature to yellow in the 10th edition hmm finally the Afrikaans Black Flag mattock relaxed black frizzled air silky skin flat nose timid lips females without chain mammary glands give milk abundantly crafty sly
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lazy cunning lustful careless anoints himself with grease and governed by Caprice as you can see only the scientific descriptors Benjamin Rush one of the founding fathers and a physician believed being black was a hereditary disease called negroid ism a type of leprosy and that it could be cured Christopher minors a German philosopher and historian believed that races could only be divided according to beauty with as he may expected the white race being beautiful and the black race being ugly he took this nonsense even further
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though he claimed that blacks don't feel emotions or banging and that they are all carnivores all this was discovered after he dissected like a diver's Karl vocht a prominent Swiss scientists claimed that whites are entirely different species and that blacks were related to Apes now this original simple division of five races done by Linnaeus group 213 with the publication of the diversity of origin of the human races by Louis Agassiz in 1850 also in the mid 19th century Arthur D Gavino would publish his an
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essay on the inequality of human races the governor is interesting to note for a few reasons one is that he was diplomat and he had no training in any signs of field let alone anthropology and two he was the one to coin the idea of an Aryan race he divided race into three categories black yellow and white of course in his mind the white race was the most superior the white race originally possesses the monopoly of beauty intelligence and strength he thought that race mixing was the greatest evil he further believed that
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any positive achievements or traits that the yellow or black races had or would have are solely due to mixing at one point or another with white people he also decided that there were subsections of white people with a pure Germanic race being the ideal example funnily enough though he was French and also claimed to be a descendant of Odin why is this interesting because D governor made friends with Richard Wagner the radically anti-semitic German composer and a favorite of Hitler Wagner supported the governor's work and after
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the governor's death it was picked up and built upon by Wagner son-in-law Houston Stewart Chamberlain Chamberlain was Hitler's mentor and prime supporter I think you see the connection let's distract from this depressing fact through some humor Dinkelman who spent his time as the plant in Tehran Iran Iran was his prime obsession claiming that their ancient civilizations were built by a Western European race that has since mixed too much with the semantic Arabs to be salvaged despite the fact that there is complete continuity between ancient and modern
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Iranians due to this he saw Iran being conquered by the west eventually but warned that Western men would all too easily be seduced by beautiful Persian women thus causing more miscegenation to further corrupt the West this strange Orientals idea was very common with him actually as he believed that Asian and black women had immense powers of sexual attraction over white men and that whenever whites were in close proximity to blacks and Asians the result was always mixing as white men were seduced by Asian and black women to the detriment of the whites for a supposedly
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superior race they sure are bad at self-control now let's move on to the meat of history racism rather than giving a long series of names explaining the who and where of random people with unfamiliar names that neither you or I will bother to remember I'd rather give their opinions in the context of the time and how they justified their personal biases White's being superior to all through their research this research eventually became pervasive in academic circles and would trickle down to more educated layman at the time and eventually these opinions reached today israei Surrealists in one form or
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another in one package or another Samuel George Morton is one of these unfamiliar names he was a physician renowned for his collection of human skulls and his strange belief entirely based off of traveler reports that different races of man produced in fertile offspring do you an idea how influential he was the New York Tribune wrote after his passing that probably no scientific man enjoyed a high reputation among scholars throughout the world than dr. Morton his prime goal was to see if a ranking of races could be established objectively
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by physical characteristics of the brain particularly by its size the idea being the larger the brain the more intelligent a person is the more intelligent the more civilized endowed with the tools to rule over the less endowed so on and so forth now the very idea that larger brain equals more intelligent is dubious at best brain size is related to the size of the body that houses it large people tend to have larger brains than small people elephants have way larger brains than human beings what's important is the ratio of brain size to body size when
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applying this metric the ratio between for example men and women are the same despite men usually being larger and usually having larger brains this also applies to different groups of people be they black Native American East Asian etc the very premise that larger brains equals more intelligence is flawed from the very beginning putting that aside Morton's measurements of skulls themselves were nonsense he measured them by packing skulls with mustard seeds at first which provided very shoddy measurements undeterred he moved on to using lead shot which had a much
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narrower range for air from these measurements he produced three tables two of random sets of Hmong skulls in his position and one for skulls he got from an ancient Egyptian tomb long after many of his beliefs were discredited these tables were still used as hard evidence for the ranking of races conveniently the results happened to exactly match the racial vices of the author whites at the top Native Americans in the middle and blacks at the bottom under the breakdown of whites to tones and anglo-saxons were at the top jews below and indians as in from the indian sub-continent at the bottom
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this pattern was also supposedly proven by the skulls found in the egyptian tune how interesting biology seems to have proven that which egalitarians deny the truth is though that he fudged his numbers Stephen Jay Gould in his book the mismeasure Mann argues that this fudging was unintentional but in the end it doesn't really change anything now let's see how he fudged his numbers exactly in his averaging of cranial capacities amongst for Native American groups something very cheeky was done in his sample of 144 skulls
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36 skulls belonged to the Inca Peruvians which were a short stature and body size while the larger brained era quite contributed only three skulls if it were the other way around his results which were an average of course would have risen by quite a bit when correcting this little mistake Gould did this by averaging the mean values for all tribes represented by four skulls or more the mean average measured in cubic inches jumps from 80 point to 280 3.79 hold on a minute you say Morton's data shows that Caucasian
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skulls are more than three cubic inches larger than the corrected figure doesn't that still prove Morton's point well no he didn't only fudge the numbers for the Native Americans in his Caucasian mean he emits Indian skulls as in from the Indian subcontinent for fear that it will unnecessarily reduced the average of Caucasian skulls mind you he didn't extend this courtesy to the Native American skulls gladly including the much smaller Inca Peruvian skulls as 25% of the amount of skulls used in that measurement by restoring Indian skulls
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to the average and applying the same method of calculation as for Native American skulls the correct result is 84 0.45 cubic inches by accounting for the error range of plus minus one cubic inch the results shows that there is practically no difference between Native Americans and Caucasians interestingly Eskimos which Morton had a very low opinion of yield an average of eighty six point eight yet Morton hides this by lumping them in with the Mongol classification Morton believed that he had shown that White's were superior to
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Native Americans and intelligence now he want to show that the supposed discrepancy between whites and blacks was even greater and that this has remained unchanged since ancient times here's where the skulls from the Egyptian tomb come in now Morton believed that he could identify both races and subgroups among races from features of the skull a belief that most anthropologists today would deny as possible unambiguously he divided his Caucasians calls into pelagics Helene's basically Greeks Jews and Egyptians in that order again
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confirming anglo-saxon preferences non-caucasians calls he identified either as negroid hybrids of Negro and Caucasian with more black than white or as pure negro now most of you have already realized what he did with this unnecessary step of subdivision he simply assigns the largest calls to his preferred Pulaski group and the smallest to Egyptians if we ignore his separation and combine all 65 Caucasian skulls into a single sample we get an average capacity of 82 point 15 cubic inches if we give Morton the benefit of all doubt and rank is dubious sub-samples equally
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as we did in computing Native American Caucasian means we obtain an average of 83 point 3 cubic inches these averages are quite a bit larger than the negroid and Negro averages Morton provides couple this with the fact that Morton didn't take into account the sexes of the skulls the white skulls were majority male while the black skulls were female by a substantial percentage if we correct the number by sex the black male average is 87 point 5 larger than the white male average of 86 point 5 these differences that favored whites and Morton's original results are made
13:49
even worse by the very selective rounding of numbers Morton did rounding up for whites and down for blacks in the end this was nothing but an ideological justification of class-based relations sure they spoke of Asiatics and hindus with passing statements about their inferiority or other negative traits the real meat of this research was toward the justification of slavery particularly in the United States an example of this would be trappin tomania a mental disease coined by some physicians of the time TripIt amania was
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the disease responsible that caused slaves to want to run away supposedly they couldn't wrap their heads around why they would want to run away so they came up with a disease for that desire the reasoning being that blacks are less intelligent and hence equal to the intellect of white children cut right an American physician wrote white children they need slaves are constrained by unalterable physiological laws to love those in authority over them hence from a law of his nature the Negro can no more help loving kind master then the child can help loving
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her that gives it suck huh now that's enough about Morton even though there's a lot more to say continue the strange fascination that racialist salve with skull and brain measuring let's introduce Robert Bennett Beane a US physician that published a long and detailed article comparing the brains of American blacks and whites in 1906 supposedly he found undisputable proof that white brains were superior everywhere he looked hmm let's dispute to that proof that first of all let me familiarize you with the premises York doctor the brain consists of two
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hemispheres with a structure called the corpus callosum connecting the two the brain also consists of four lobes the frontal at the front obviously parietal temporal and occipital at the back the frontal lobe is responsible for among other things cognitive function the parietal lobe manages information about senses a movement the osipov the lobe is responsible for vision the temporal lobe manages memories and their interaction with other senses for example and spell a particular food and you'll remember that trip you took to Morocco ten years ago or something the understanding of
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the time however was slightly different the frontal lobe was considered to be solely responsible for higher mental function while the occipital was considered to be solely responsible for sensory motor capacities beens belief was that logically the race with a larger average frontal lobe would be more civilized and developed and the race more barbaric and uncivilized would have a larger hospital lobe coming back to the corpus callosum being measured the relative sizes of the front portion and back portion of that corpus callosum what he found
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conveniently was that whites have a larger front portion where the seat of intelligence is this is a nonces term by modern standards blacks inversely add smaller and hence we can extrapolate that they are less intelligent funnily enough being also extended this to the sexes apparently proving that we were less intelligent as well since they had smaller front portions than men as someone you may have noticed however another criteria is missing the old favorite of racialist s-- brain size well by this time it turns out that some
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have accepted the fact that black and white brains are the same size there was an out though maybe it wasn't the brain size but differing sizes of brain components between races that proved white superiority for example blacks were deficient in intelligence because there are several lobes were larger and frontal lobes smaller than whites Negroes are between man and the orangutan the Negro is primarily affectionate immensely emotional then sensual and under stimulation passionate there is love of a sensation and
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capacity for melodious articulation there is undeveloped artistic power and taste Negroes make good artisans handicraftsmen and there is instability of character incident to lack of self control especially in connection with sexual relation and there's lack of orientation or recognition a position and condition of self and environment evidenced by peculiar bumptious Ness so-called that is particularly noticeable one would naturally expect some such character for the Negro because the whole posterior part of the brain is large and the whole anterior portion is small here being is
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saying prejudice nonsense basically the old version of ya blacks are stupid but they sure can sing and play basketball except a hundred years ago they said melodious articulation and capable handicraftsmen means data was so groundbreaking that in editorial in the journal American medicine in 1907 said the anatomical basis for the complete failure of Negro schools to impart higher studies the brain cannot comprehend them any more than a horse can understand the rule of three leaders in all political parties now acknowledge the error of a human fault
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they may be practicable to rectify the error and move a menace to prosperity a large electorate without brains essentially blacks were too stupid to be allowed to vote let's take a look at the plot graph again it looks good almost too good well if you thought that you weren't the only one Franklin B mall beans mentor at John Hopkins University also was skeptical and decided to repeat the study he did so with one change he made sure he didn't know which were brains of blacks and which were brains of whites the
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results take a look as you can see no difference clearly Beane was not making an objective study but setting out to prove a previously held by as he had as incorrect and dishonest as being was though the findings of his study persisted well into the 1970s this confusion regarding brain and head measuring continues however eminent scientists such as Pierre Paul Broca a physician that placed his name on the section of the brain responsible for speed production are definitely not below throwing mud at a wall on seeing if it sticks funnily enough I recently
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had a patient with Broca's aphasia now two things will be of interest here the cranial index and measurements of the foramen magnum let's deal with the cranial index first this simple measurement was the ratio of maximum width to maximum length of the skull those were the ratio of 0.75 or less were referred to as dolichocephalic those shorter skulls with a ratio of 0.8 or higher were called brachycephalic this was popularized by the swedish scientist under stresses of course the claim was that nordic and germanic
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people were dolkka cephalic and hence more intelligent this upset french scientists as they were ranking cephalic and hence refused to affirm that belief that brachycephaly was a trait of less intelligent races of course only because they too exhibited the trait the biggest problem of the cranial index however was this African blacks and Australian Aborigines were deleted cephalic not only this but they were the longest called people in the world hilariously they tried to work around us by claiming that blacks only handler skulls because they have larger
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occipital lobes and smaller frontal lobes remember apparently a sign of lesser intelligence thus extending their skull further backwards and hence resulting in longer skulls as for French brachycephaly well that was only because French people had wider faces apparently nothing to do with the supposed lack of intelligence or frontal lobe mass the mental gymnastics are admirable all given that now the foramen magnum the foramen magnum is a hole at the base of her skull where the spinal cord passes through why is this interesting well in
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embryology of mammals the foramen magnum is originally at the base of the skull but then migrates to a position behind the skull the human form of Magnum doesn't migrate much at all though as it must stay at the base of the skull so you can stand on your two legs you stand upright and look around normally in Apes the foramen magnum is not at the base of the skull but also not behind the skull fully like in other mammals instead it's in between these two positions as you may already suspect of course the racialist will try to spin this in a way where blacks are closer to apes due to the position of the form of magnums being more in the middle
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position well why it's obviously will have their foramen magnums right at the base of the skull after reading about this for a while you start see coming a mile away this was hotly debated at one point with some like Pritchard saying there's no difference between blacks and whites while racialist like for a showing grades where the more superior races had a more forward position foramen magnum Broca the French physician or he discussed decided to find the truth on the matter once and for all he got a bunch of skulls as these guys usually do
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and began measuring the results again conveniently blacks had foramen magnums more posterior while White's had four magnums more anteriorly positioned however the original argument was that the measurement was only the relative position of the foreign Magnum on the cranium itself not to the face projecting in front of the cranium broken I realized this and decided to redo his measurements to clear this debate the results blacks had more anteriorly facing foramen magnum than whites by their own arbitrary rules this meant that blacks were superior to
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whites now did they admit this of course not instead they changed the criteria yet again more and truly facing former magnums didn't mean that blacks were more superior it instead meant that they lacked anterior brain power relative to whites blacks have lost a lot supposedly in the frontal lobe Department and gained in the occipital lobe thus almost moving the cranium back with the position of the foramen magnum remaining the same voila a false appearance of black advantage the anterior cranial
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projection of whites surpasses that of Negroes by 4.9% thus while the foramen magnum Negros is further back with respect to their incisors Broca's most forward point in his interior measure that included the face it is on the contrary further forward with respect to the anterior edge of the brain to change the cranium of a white into that of a Negro we would have not only to move the jaw forward but also to reduce the front of the cranium that is to make the anterior brain atrophy and to give as insufficient compensation part of the material extracted to the posterior cranium in other words in Negroes the
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facial and all septal regions are developed to the detriment of the frontal region ah beautiful flip-flopping seeing yet again of course sexism goes hand-in-hand with racism push gay a German anthropologist said the Negro brain possesses a spinal cord of the type found in children and women and beyond this approaches the type of brain found in higher Apes herve a colleague of Broca said men of the black races have it brain scarcely heavier than that of a white woman these negative views from those in and around Broca would eventually lead to
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influencing such figures like Mussolini who admired Gustav LeBlanc of the Broca's school sadly this topic isn't within the scope of this video continuing on we see a new phenomenon begin the Hat of recapitulation very briefly recapitulation in the social Darwinist sense is the idea that since evolution happens in steps those steps of younger more developed organisms resemble adult forms of less developed organ in a more concrete example the adults of inferior groups must be like children of
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superior groups because the child represents a primitive adult ancestor yet even more concretely in the minds of these racists if adult blacks and women are like white male children then they are living representatives of an ancestral stage in the evolution of white males essentially this was a system of ranking race not only by brains and heads but by entire bodies edie cope they celebrated American paleontologists that helped to develop the theory of recapitulation divided for inferior stages of human development of
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white male children that is non-white populations all women southern Europeans as opposed to the supposedly superior Northern Europeans and lower classes within the superior race cope was a heavy proponent of the idea of Nordic supremacy and heavily supported attempts at preventing Jewish and inferior European migration to the US his justification was apparently that warmer climates cause premature maturation of all faculties including mental as a result male southern Europeans have more
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female and infantile cognitive abilities than the superior northerners in colder climates G Stanley Hill Americans leading psychologists at the time said most savages in most respects are children or because of sexual maturity more properly adolescents of adult size this was said by a leading scientist in a supposedly highly developed country in 1904 remember this isn't 500 years ago this isn't ancient history this is 115 years ago almost living memory looking
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at this through a materialist lens that we can easily see the farce for what it really is a disgusting justification of imperialism Benjamin Kidd a prominent social Darwinist extended the argument to justify colonial expansion into tropical Africa we are dealing with peoples who represented the same stage in history of the development of the race that the child does in history of the development of the individual the tropics will not therefore be developed by the natives themselves how incredibly convenient the poet of Imperial is Roger Kipling even included
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recapitulation theory into his famous poem of the white man's burden take up the white man's burden sent forth the besties breed go bind your sons to exile to serve the captives need to wait in heavy harness on fluttered folk and wild your new caught sullen people's half devil and half child no more is it more obvious that recapitulation theory is nothing but a thinly disguised attempt at justifying imperialism then in a letter from Teddy Roosevelt to Henry
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Cabot Lodge in which he said the verse was very poor poetry but made good sense from the expansion point of view the greatest irony is that after the 1920s theory of recapitulation collapsed and was replaced by a theory of neoteny which stated the exact opposite under neoteny more infantile features were shared between human children and baby apes however as apes grew into adulthood these symmetries quickly disappear now the implication is the more infantile race is the more developed and less ape-like it is to quote gold onto
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recapitulation adults of inferior races are like children of superior races under neoteny superior groups retain their childlike characteristics as adults while inferior groups pass through the higher phase of childhood and then degenerate towards a business now consider the conventional prejudice of white scientists whites are superior blacks are inferior Andrzej capitulation black adults should be like why children but underneath any white adults should be like black children Louis bulk the main proponent of the neoteny Theory conveniently doesn't mention something
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interesting women tend to have more physically infantile features than men and state logically being more developed superior Asians tend to retain a youthful appearance for longer and many Asian men can't grow full beards these features could also be considered physically infantile making them superior II of course conveniently never made such a connection neoteny is still semi alive in some circles today as influential British psychologist AJ isync used it to argue for black inferiority in his night
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71 work of course he was utterly wrong honestly this video could go on forever there is no shortage of scientists physicians philosophers and other appeal to Authority types that believed built upon and peddled this nonsense however I think I've done enough to show not only how the history itself is disgusting and hypocritical but how it's also riddled with data fudging ridiculous biases and just outright nonsense this is not the end of the story however subscribe to be informed on when I upload the next videos where I'll talk about white
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racists are wrong about race and the consequences of these beliefs if you enjoyed what I do then please consider supporting me on patreon it really really helps speaking of patrons I'd like to thank serene arson Cheyenne Zhang Laurie Valdemar Mineola con Daryl McFarland Adrian Rinaldi Erin billing would Calgary Carmen Andy Haywood Ella Garzon fosston Henry Ashurst Erin Cocker Jeremiah buffler industrial robot Omar Abdul Jabar West Franklin Mia
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Nakano Liam saponin Connor O'Reilly Brennan Ruffing Jedi Davey on nuts Ranheim Monday Matt Smith mica our guru Poulos Michael D shet Peter coffin SATA Lonnie Khmer pingu and of course Charles Thank You Charles this will be all for today sorry for taking so long to put this out I'll see you in the next one [Music]

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