ATONS Aids to Navigation incl lateral, cardinal, lighthouse, COLREGS and IALA region A and region B

ATONS Aids to Navigation incl lateral, cardinal, lighthouse, COLREGS and IALA region A and region B

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00:11
[Music] hello and welcome to our aids navigation video today we take a look at the various navigation aids we could encounter who controls them what shapes and colors can be expected where they are placed and what roles they play as usual we'd like to thank everyone for the fantastic comments we have received on our channel please go ahead and like comment share
00:57
subscribe and then hit the bell to receive notifications for new releases aids to navigation are like road signs on the water they tell us where we are and where we're going they regulate traffic and ensure safe passage for ourselves and other water users they can take us to interesting places and as well as inform us of any potential dangers we might encounter not too long ago our waterways were regulated and controlled by a large number of different voyage
01:28
and navigation systems and these would vary from region to region obviously this was not ideal and would lead to confusion and dangerous situations following some unfortunate incidents and the subsequent loss of life a decision was made to update and standardize these systems on an international level introducing the international association of lighthouse authorities whose purpose would be to implement a system which would be recognized and accepted
01:58
globally although the system was for the most part standardized the eventual outcome saw the world split into two regions with slight differences applying to each region a includes africa europe most of asia and australasia region b includes the americas philippines japan and some parts of southeast asia thankfully the differences in the two regions are not great and can be understood and applied with a little preparation
02:29
and planning the standardized aids to navigation are indicated on charts and by using charts and what we see around us we can ensure we are safely making way confirm our position avoid dangers and ensure we are not being a hazard to other water users the problem with charts is that they can be outdated so it's important to ensure we are using the most recent edition which can be found as a print date or addition date listed on the chart
03:01
to assist us we can also use nautical almanacs which give us additional information regarding a certain area and provide valuable tips on what to look out for and what potential conditions we can expect notice to mariners are regular updates to changes or proposed changes in an area and these can be found online or in print and contain the most up-to-date information if we use notice to mariners to update our existing chart and make amendments it is vital to update the notice to mariners publication
03:32
and record the reference number on our charts and keep them relevant if you receive charts from others you would want to see how accurate they could be we could also make use of electronic chart plotters and gps but bear in mind that for these devices you would have to have an uninterrupted power supply your best tools are planning and preparation and by using as many sources of information as possible you can minimize potential risks and ensure the safety of your crew and
04:03
vessel our first markers we'll look at are our lateral markers and it's here we have to keep our two regions in mind their names do not change and neither do their colors we have a port lateral marker which is red and the starboard lateral marker which is green they mark channels and entry or exit from harbors and ports port lateral markers come in various shapes and can be found indicated on charts in various ways depending on the type and the region if
04:37
they are not colored on the chart their colored will be indicated by a color symbol in this case r for red if they have a light we can expect to see the light teardrop and with any light we can expect to see a light sequence starboard lateral markers come in various shapes and can be indicated on charts in various ways depending on the type and the region if they are not colored on the chart their color will be indicated by a color symbol in this case g for green if they have a light we can expect to see the light
05:08
teardrop and with any light we can expect a light sequence all these slides you see here are posted on our website and the link is provided in the video details below save them on a smartphone or tablet for easier referencing in region a when we enter a channel or area marked with lateral markers we keep the port lateral marker to the port side of the vessel or on our left the starboard marker will be on our right keep in mind though that when we leave
05:43
the same channel area we can expect to see these markers on the opposite sides in region b this changes we now use the red write return rule when entering such a channel or area our port lateral marker now passes on our right the starboard marker passes on our left again when we leave this channel we should expect these markers to be on opposite sides let's return to region
06:16
a and add our top shapes which can be found on lateral markers on our starboard marker we will find a cone shape and on our port marker we will find a cylinder or can shape these shapes match the colour of the marker it's important to note that these shapes do not change sides depending on region the cone always stays on our starboard side and the cylinder stays on the port side this is because we use top shapes when
06:48
color or visibility is compromised the shapes do not change according to region if we change regions and bring back the ability to see color the top shapes need to match the color of the marker and this is why we can see different color top shapes depending on the region sometimes we may pass through a channel which splits into two channels and we need a marker to show us which side of the split to enter this marker is known as a preferred channel marker
07:26
marked with both colors with one color being a dominant color the dominant color indicates what type of lateral marker it represents in keeping with our region a rules we enter the channel to our left with a starboard marker on our right side and in region b we enter the channel to the right should the dominant color be red this becomes a port lateral marker following the rules for region a we will take the channel to the right keeping the port lateral marker on our left
08:00
using region b and the red right return rule we will take the channel to the left we should also expect this marker to have a top shape which will show the preferred channel in fading light with its color matching the dominant color of the marker lateral markers could be numbered on charts as well as physically on the actual buoy these numbers will be in an ascending order as we advance through a channel port laterals are always numbered in even numbers and the starboard laterals are always
08:38
odd numbers the numbering of laterals does not change according to region we still see even numbers on port laterals and odd numbers on starboard laterals in an ascending order as we progress in region b our even numbers will be on our right and the odd numbers to our left thankfully this is pretty much where our two regions differ from here on we no longer need to think about regions as our aids are internationally recognized and accepted
09:14
the next set of markers are known as cardinal markers or buoys these four markers are identified by their black and yellow markings and their variations of the two top shapes which are points we have a north cardinal marker a south cardinal marker an east cardinal marker and finally a west cardinal marker the north cardinal has both top shapes pointing upwards as if to north the top shapes also indicate which part of the marker is painted black
09:53
in this case the upper half on a chart we can expect to find the north cardinal symbol its colour codes as listed from top to bottom the light symbol if present and if we have a light then we can expect a light sequence the south cardinal has both top shapes pointing down as if to south on a chart we can expect to find the south cardinal symbol its color codes as listed from top to bottom the light symbol if present and if we have a light
10:25
then we can expect a light sequence the east cardinal has both top shapes pointing away from each other on a chart we can expect to find the east cardinal symbol its color codes as listed from top to bottom the light symbol if present and if we have a light then we should expect a light sequence the west cardinal has both top shapes pointing toward each other on a chart we can expect to find the west cardinal symbol its color codes as listed from top to bottom
10:56
the light symbol if present and if we have a light then we can expect a light sequence the cardinals indicate to us the safe course to take to avoid danger when we encounter a north cardinal we can expect safe passage to north of the marker with the south cardinal we keep to the south of the marker east cardinal shows a safe passage to the east of the marker and west cardinal has safe waters to the west of the marker we can use a clock to remember the light
11:29
sequences we can probably encounter with cardinals always confirm these light sequences on a chart north is at 12 o'clock east at three o'clock south at six o'clock and west cardinal at nine o'clock as our east cardinal is at three o'clock we can expect this light sequence to include three flashes of a certain type with indicated time intervals as shown on the chart the west cardinal is situated at a nine o'clock position so here we find or look out for nine
12:09
flashes of a certain type which will be indicated on our chart with the set time intervals the south cardinal does flash six times of a certain type but to avoid confusion with our previous two cardinals we could see a prolonged flash after the first six flashes and again the time intervals indicated on the chart the north cardinal has a constant or continuous flash of a certain type and normally has no time intervals or repetitions the type of flash will also be indicated
12:51
on the charts with each north corner in a certain area with different flash types this is to avoid mistaken identity of the same types of markers lights assist with navigation and identification of markers in fading light or poor visibility they can be charted as buoys or also as major lights such as lighthouses the light is confirmed on the chart by the light symbol or the teardrop the type of light is indicated such as in this case a fixed light
13:29
a light is a white light unless indicated otherwise the type indicated here is a flashing white light with its description found on the chart this could also be a flashing red light as indicated or it could be a green flashing light the light could be an alternating flashing light with more colors indicated lights can be grouped in sequences with their respective time intervals a flashing light could also be defined
14:12
as a quick flashing light we can also encounter very quick flashing lights some lights with a long flash and occulting light stays on but flashes off i surface lights are on and off for the same period of time light could be flashing a morse code which helps identify the marker or beacon as in this case the letter a some markers beacons and major lights can be seen on a chart with a magenta ring
14:54
around its symbol this ring indicates that the particular beacon or marker also has the ability to be picked up by radar and identified accordingly a rakon which is short for radar beacon can be identified by its indicated letter in this case the letter a with a raycon device we can confirm our position and ensure we are on correct course and know what distances are applicable the radar screen will indicate the raycon identifier
15:24
in morse code remember to follow the link below to download the info slides for easy referencing and knowledge review let's move on and have a look at this particular bay which looks a bit tricky to enter especially in poor visibility or at night here we might find additional aid which could assist us in tackling this hazardous passage here we could find leading lights or markers so let's get a bit closer and investigate these lights or markers
16:03
our first leading light or marker can be found close to shore situated quite close to sea level sometimes even in the water and our second leading light or marker can be found further inland and on a higher elevation together these two beacons make up the start of a line which shows us which course to take so we can make safe passage into this particular area if the two lights or markers or above each other as we view them we are on the correct course if we begin to drift
16:40
these markers will no longer be above each other showing us we have to take corrective measures as the top marker is further ensure to correct our course we turn towards the bottom marker to line them both up again if the markers drift further apart we know we have turned the wrong way on the charts we should see two lights probably marked as major lights with the added light symbol we should be notified of the light's identification
17:10
by means of color and sequence our first light year is an occulting light every three seconds it stands 8 meters above sea level and is visible from a distance of 12 miles our second light is also an occulting light but this time every 6 seconds this light stands higher above sea level at 20 meters and is visible from a distance of 15 miles the chart could also show the leading line if a heading is indicated it's important
17:41
to only follow this bearing once the lights have been lined up a similar set of lights we might see are sector lights which also assist us in navigating tricky areas at night with the aid of specialized lenses and other wonderful engineering skills the color of the light is determined by the angle at which we view the light when viewing the light dead on we see it as white and as we move from different angles we can see red and green light
18:21
if we are in the safe sector we see the light as white and as we drift we will leave the sector and we will see a light change this indicates to us we have moved out of the safe sector and into the green zone our angle is incorrect and we need to rectify our course by turning to port we will again enter the safe sector and see the light as white the same applies to drifting out on the other side once we venture too far away from the safe sector we enter the zone where the light will be viewed as red
18:53
this again indicates that a change of course is needed in this case turning to starboard once we have altered our course we should return into the white zone and back into the safe sector let's now have a look and see what we could possibly find on a chart we should expect to find the light indicated as a major light with the required light teardrop as we are dealing with sector lights we should find all the colors recorded in the light sequence along with other light information this particular light is
19:24
situated 15 meters above sea level and is visible from a distance of 32 miles in addition to this information look for the sectors indicated on the chart with its relevant color sectors our next marker is a safe water marker and its name says it all on a chart it should show its distinctive ball top shape it is identified by its red and white vertical stripes with these colors indicated on the chart it could have a light
19:58
and therefore should also show its light sequence these can be found in the middle of channels where they sometimes act as traffic separation markers they can indicate open waters as well as assist with general navigation simuline looks but with a very different role is the isolated danger marker this marker however will be topped with two ball shapes it can be identified by its black red black markings and its light sequence is usually two flashes of a certain type
20:31
with indicated time intervals this marker does not indicate a certain cause to pass safely as long as we avoid the marker itself isolated danger markers are situated directly above the danger and as long as we pass at a safe distance we will encounter no issues the new rec marker is used to warn us of new wrecks or other recent factors which could affect safe passage these should be avoided at all times they are identified by their blue and yellow vertical stripes and alternate in
21:06
blue and yellow lights as they indicate recent changes they will probably not show up on charts and will eventually be replaced by permanent markers and included in notice the mariners and charts the lighthouse the original aid to navigation no longer operated by lighthouse keepers who burnt candles or gas these important landmarks have evolved into the automated structures that we find today though they have changed in design
21:36
their function is the same they warn us of dangers give us our first indication we are nearing land confirm our position and therefore what action to take to return safely on a chart these will be indicated as a major light with the required light sequence and position information it could also be fitted with a rakon device with its identifying letter if the lighthouse is fitted with a fox signal this information should be included on
22:08
the chart fog signals alert us to our position when we encounter bad visibility these sound signals can be listed in nautical almanacs which could include their sound frequency sequences and how to activate them digitally if necessary be alert and exercise extreme caution in fog as other vessels may also be sounding fog signals when we encounter fog we need to act accordingly and ensure we follow the required steps as defined by maritime
22:43
law to aid visibility we should turn on our navigation lights designate someone on dedicated watch reduce speed and prepare for evasive action sound a fox signal according to the size of your vessel and method of propulsion these regulations can be found in sailing manuals and under the various rules as stipulated in call regs if installed on board monitor radar and ais and turn on vhf to receive or send any
23:26
emergency transmissions some buoys or markers may be fitted with sound devices as we enter areas with fog or reduce visibility we can listen for sounds that could identify such markers these could be wave activated bells or even automated signals which can be triggered by poor visibility the type of sound signal fitted on a buoy should be indicated on the chart next to the chartered marker lighthouses are land-based structures with various features that assist in navigation
23:57
as mentioned earlier when a structure with the same features is water-based it is known as a land b-boy or marker a type of floating lighthouse these large markers should include the same colour schemes and descriptions and be found on the charts as follows last reminder download and save all the slides which can be found by following the link in the description below
24:41
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