Cell components 2

Cell components 2

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00:00
hi guys this is the second part of the presentation about cell components and organelles and we are going to continue uh with the rest of organelles that we could not explain in the other presentation so we're going to start with the cozy body the cozy body is formed by a series of core and flattened sacs uh arranged in a parallel position okay that is normally found near the nuclei of cells these are real images taken
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with microscopes and you can see these flattened sucks with vesicles around and the function of the gauzy body cannot be understood but in cooperation with the endoplasmic reticulum one phase of the cultivation the cyst phase or incoming phase is gonna receive transport vesicles that emerge from the endoplasmic reticulum containing proteins and other substances and as these vesicles
01:05
fuse with the membranes of these sacs and pass from one to the next they are going to be refined or modified and they are finally packaged in new vesicles in the trans phase and when they are packaged they are shipped to other parts of the cell or to the outside the cells that execute secretion functions like glands normally have a abundant and well-developed golgi bodies because
01:35
the substances they have to secrete are prepared and packaged in the cozy body and then sent outside the cell in transport vesicles well these vesicles or membranous vesicles and transport vesicles are just small sacs surrounded by a simple membrane that contain different substances okay they act as a transportation means between different parts of the cell or between the inside and the outside of the cell
02:06
vacuoles are basically the same but they just store the substances okay well and this is a picture that represents more or less the cooperation between the endoplasmic reticulum and the quality body for example in a circular function okay so the ribosomes in the rough endoplasmic reticulum produce proteins that pass into the endoplasmic reticulum are modified and then packaged in transport vesicles that are sent towards the golgi body
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fuse with it and release their content inside the first sack then they pass inside vesicles from suck to as they are modified and refined and they are finally packaged in new vesicles that can be sent for example outside the cell to be released basically lysosomes are special kind of vesicle surrounded by a special membrane that is um the container of specific enzymes that we also call digestive
03:16
or hydrolytic enzymes whose function is to disintegrate or to break down particles or substances that are not useful anymore or that add food and have to be broken down into simpler nutrients okay so their function is intracellular digestion on the cell and the things that are digested can be food for example this can be food that the cell is going to phagocyte and this food
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is enters in a cell inside a food vacuole or a full vesicle and then merges with this lysosome to be digested but sometimes instead of food we have like pathogenic particles bacteria viruses that have to be destroyed and digesting them is a way of destroying them okay um sometimes it's not things that come from the outside but things that are inside the cell like for example an old mitochondria that is
04:20
not useful anymore and has to be destroyed and recycled so it has to be digested okay so they maintain the circlian they do digest you know food particles and they also destroy germs okay uh this is basically the same picture but it also illustrates how lysosomes are formed by they called the apparatus and that the proteins they contain the enzymes they contain come from the rough and the plasmid
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reticulum so rubbing the plasmacritic lungs synthesizes the enzymes of proteins inside then they are refined in the cosy body and then we have a lysosome that merges with another vesicle containing the food particle or the particle to be digested okay well now we have the cytoskeleton the cytoskeleton can be also called scaffolding because it acts as a network that gives consistency and shape to the cell remember that a
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animal cells do not have a cell wall that protects and gives shape and rigidity so they need a cytoskeleton to maintain shape and to also allow animal cells to perform certain movements so they control shape of the cell but also in a dynamic way allowing the cell to do certain movements okay this network of filaments is also involved in the movement of certain organelles inside the cell
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and also in the division of dna when gametes are produced or when the cell is divided these filaments are not all the same there are different types they are made of proteins and here you have a sample of the most important types of filaments in the cytoskeleton with different thicknesses one example is microtubules we also have actin filaments which are smaller and essentials are two cylinders in a
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perpendicular position to one another that are made by microtubules each of these yellow things here would be a microtibial and as you see the cylinder is formed by nine triplets or nine groups of three microtubules okay in a micrograph we can see essentials this way as they are perpendicular when we cut the structure one appears as a circle because this is a cross section and here you can see
06:58
the nine triplets of microtubules and the other one is called in a longitudinal way so you can see such as the two walls okay flagella are well sorry we did not explain the function of sentience sorry centrioles have a role in controlling deformation and dissembling of microtubules so they control cytoskeleton they control
07:32
also the formation of flagella and cilia that we will see and they also participate in the movement of organelles and chromosomes during cell division flagella and cilia are both mobile structures with the same kind of structure so this structure that you have here is valid for both syria and flagella they are made of microtubules inside as well in this case they have a basal body which is essential this would be essential and then the
08:04
microtubules grow longer through the filament of the cilia or fragile and one microtubule in each pair is lost so as you can see here we do not have nine groups of three but nine groups of two okay there are also or there is also an extra pair of central microtubules okay prokaryotic flagella are not the same they have a different internal structure so we have the basal body or essential and the filament or eczema
08:35
made of microtubules remember both cilia and fragile are mobile structures but they differ in their length flagella are much longer in their number flagella normally appear in a low number in the case of humans the only cells with flagella are the stem cells and they just have one flagella while cilia normally appear in big numbers okay lining the outer surface of the cell also the way they move a flagella move like a whip
09:06
okay while cilia move like a brush or in a wavy way or swaying from one side from side to side okay well the function um in human self needed to um move forward in the liquid medium that is the semen okay or sperm so this flagella this flatella are useful to make the cell move
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however cilia do not have that purpose because they are not present in mobile cells the function of cilia is to move for to displace fluids of the surface of the cell for example we find cilia this brush-like structure at the top of the cells are cilia and this cilia that appear in the respiratory epithelium so the epithelium the skin that covers the inside of our
10:13
respiratory system move in order to make much flow and move upwards to be expelled okay so this is the way celia work this way the cells don't move cilia move to displace fluids or in this case mucous over the cell surface and i think this was all today this is the function and structure of most organelles
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in human cells so please now take some time to fill out your tables uh to complete the description of the structure and the function of the different structures that we have covered also research about the spanish name of these structures and complete the table with a drawing that helps you remember the aspect and the function of each organic well this was everything uh bye bye and remember to ask any questions if you
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need help

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