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Russian Revolution was a political, social and economic movement which started in 1917 in the Russian Empire This episode, because of its trascendent consequences, is now considered one of the major events of the Late Modern Period The consequence was the overthrow of the Tsar Dinasty, heirs of the Roman Empire, what meant the abolition of the absolutist and despotic system, which was reigning at the moment. The revolution brought with it a comunist government led by Vladimir Lenin. The consequences that caused the Russian Revolution were: 1. Russia was at war with Germany, WWI, also known as Great War, the constant defeats and numerous losses that the Russian army endured led the Romanov to disparagement, last Tsar Dinasty, with Nicholas II reigning. Years before, in 1905 a first revolution took place after the Russian defeat by Japan in the Russo-Japanese War. 2. Russia suffered an economic crisis with food scarcity for the people,
who endured a horrible famine; it was an eminently rural and belated country. Russia's social organization was based on the most absolute inequality distinguishing two main social classes: the Nobility and the simple people, almost all of them peasants, there was no middle class. 3. We will find the third cause in the wife of the Tsar Nicholas II, Empress Alexandra, of German descent, incredibly unpopular and enemy of any people's reform. One year before Rasputin had been killed, who was the physician and counselor of the Empress. This causes, attached to a harsh winter, were the reason why the revolution burst. Let's distinguish two phases of the revolution during 1917: February Revolution and October Revolution, which took place in March and November, due to Russia's regiment of the Julian calendar, instead of the Gregorian calendar, like the rest of the world. February Revolution started with a spontaneous strike of the workers of the factories from the Capital City, Petrograd, nowadays St. Petersburg. The next days the strikes were general all around Petrograd and the tension increased.
The manifestations were brought for bigger and bigger crowds; the army didn't have the tools to stop the revolution and Nicholas II had to abdicate. The firts episode of the Revolution ended with more than 100 victims, mainly manifestors. The fast and unexpected fall of the regime unchained a wave of enthusiasme and a feeling of release. A provisional government succeeded absolute power, which was led by Aleksandr Kérenski; the first weeks of generosity were very peaceful, in cities and in rural zones, there were no reprisals against the former Tsar's servants. Freedom of speech and asociation was decreed and the entrance of political exiles was allowed, among them the entrance of revolutionary Vladimir Lenin who lived in exile. The position started to shift, the soviets which were people's assemblies of workers, soldiers and peasants, let, in the beginning, the Provisional Government to rule, but insisted in a prerrogative to influence government and control certain militias.
The mass of workers and peasants started to politicize, the small Bolshevik party, led by Lenin, who imposed an extreme radicalization, was the spokesman of the general discontent and became object of people's aspiratons. With his gift of oratory, he defended the postulates of Karl Marx, to change the capitalist system for a for a socio-economic socialist system, and to set up the Dictatorship of the Proletariat. A frenzy to discuss and propose took place in the city. Kérenski's government grew unpopular, and uncapable of reforming, pulled apart from the people. Still, troops were sent to fight in WWI, this unchained popular rebelions, which were reprised by the provisonal government and started to prosecute oppositors. Lenin and Leo Trotsky started to plan the overthrow of the provisional government in order to set up the Comunist system. If Frebruary Revolution was spontaneous, October Revolution can be taken as a strategic coup orchertrated by Trotsky and Lenin against the provisional government.
In October Revolution the soviets took over the strategic spots in the Capital City, and assaulted the Winter Palace, overthrowing the provisional government; Lenin announced three measures: 1. Immediate peace, 2. a decree of land to distribute it among the peasants, 3. and the formation of the soviets of deputies of the people, or Sovnarkom, which would convene elections to form a Constituent Assembly, Lenin's Bolshevik party was defeated in the elections, Lenin dissolved the Assembly, democratically elected, because of finding himself in minority. This would evolve as a Civil War, Bolsheviks created Cheka, a political and military intelligence organization to reprise any kind of dissent. Their method of reprisal was not limited by detentions and mass fusillades, but they used brutal torture methods; the first concentration camps were born, Red Terror had begun. In 1918, who once was Russia's Tsar, Nicholas II, Empress Alexandra and their five children, who were enclosed in a Mansion of the Ural Mountains,
were massacred by a group of rebels. The Civil War, which faced Red Army to the White Army, was ended with the victory of the Red Army. Leninism and the Dicatorship of the Proletariat had risen. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was formed in 1922, the country was deeply hurt, a terrible famine killed 5 million people, and Reforms started to be set up. The party is led vertical wise, the New Estate is formed by a pyramid of soviets where actually the party decides, and the soviets vote what has been said by the party. In 1922, Lenin, who was sick, resigns his position, and a dispute for the succession started between Trotsky, the creator of the Red Army, and the brightest mind in the party and some other ringlets. In 1924 Lenin dies; Joseph Stalin, who was underrated, rose against every forecast, and would be Lenin's successor. Trotsky was expelled from the party and finally murdered. Stalin set up a bloody and totalitarian regime, rose the USSR to great world's political, economical, scientific and
militar power. The USSR would last up to 1991. Subscribe our YouTube channel Music - USSR National Anthem: The International Production - www.academiaplay.tv
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