Dwight Eisenhower | Wikipedia audio article

Dwight Eisenhower | Wikipedia audio article

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Dwight David Eick Eisenhower Eisenhower our October 14th 1892 March 28 1969 was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th president of the United States from 1953 to 1961 during World War two he was a five-star general in the United States Army and served as supreme commander of the Allied expeditionary forces in Europe he was responsible for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch in 1942-43 and the
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successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944-45 from the Western Front born David Dwight Eisenhower in Denison Texas he was raised in Kansas in a large family of mostly Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry his family had a strong religious background his mother was born a Lutheran married as a river brethren and later became a Jehovah's Witness even so Eisenhower did not belong to any organized church until 1952 he cited constant relocation during his military
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career as one reason he graduated from West Point in 1915 and later married Mamie Dowd with whom he had two sons during World War one he was denied a request to serve in Europe and instead commanded a unit that trained tank crews following the war he served under various generals and was promoted to the rank of Brigadier General in 1941 after the u.s. entered World War two Eisenhower oversaw the invasions of North Africa and Sicily before supervising the invasions of France and Germany after the war
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Eisenhower served as army chief of staff and then took on the role as president of Columbia University in 1950 152 he served as the first supreme commander of NATO in 1952 Eisenhower entered the presidential race as a republican to block the isolationist foreign policies of Senator Robert a Taft who opposed NATO and wanted no foreign entanglements he won that election in the 1956 election in landslides both times defeating Adlai Stevenson - he became
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the first Republican to win since Herbert Hoover in 1928 Eisenhower's main goals in office were taken the expansion of the Soviet Union and reduce federal deficits in 1953 he threatened the use of nuclear weapons until China agreed to peace terms in the Korean War China did agree in an armistice resulted that remains in effect his new-look policy of nuclear deterrence prioritized inexpensive nuclear weapons while reducing funding for expensive army divisions he
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continued harry s truman x' policy of recognizing the republic of china as the legitimate government of china and he won congressional approval of the formosa resolution his administration provided major aid to help the french fight off Vietnamese communists in the first Indochina war after the French left he gave strong financial support to the new state of South Vietnam he supported local military crews against governments in Iran and Guatemala during the Suez Crisis of 1956 Eisenhower condemned the Israeli British and French
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invasion of Egypt and he forced them to withdraw he also condemned the Soviet invasion during the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 but took no action during the Syrian crisis of 1957 he approved a CIA mi6 plan to stage fake border incidents as an excuse for an invasion by Syria's pro-western neighbors after the Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957 Eisenhower authorized the establishment of NASA which led to the space race he
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deployed 15,000 soldiers during the 1958 Lebanon crisis near the end of his term his efforts to set up a summit meeting with the Soviets collapsed when a US spy plane was shot down over Russia he approved the Bay of Pigs invasion which was left to his successor John F Kennedy to carry out on the domestic front Eisenhower was a moderate conservative who continued New Deal agencies and expanded social security he covered Lee opposed Joseph McCarthy and contributed to the end of McCarthyism by openly
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invoking executive privilege Eisenhower signed the Civil Rights Act of 1957 and sent army troops to enforce federal court orders that integrated schools in Little Rock Arkansas his largest program was the interstate highway system he promoted the establishment of strong science education via the National Defense Education Act Eisenhower's two terms saw widespread economic prosperity except for a minor recession in 1958 in his farewell address to the nation Eisenhower expressed his concerns about
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the dangers of massive military spending particularly deficit spending and government contracts to private military manufacturers he was voted galip's most admired man 12 times and also achieved widespread popular esteem both in and out of office historical evaluations of his presidency place him among the upper tier of US presidents topic early life in education the Eisenhower German 4-iron Heuer minor family migrated from Carl's brain in NASA Saarbrucken to North America first
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settling in York Pennsylvania in 1741 and in the 1880s moving to Kansas accounts vary as to how and when the German name Eisenhower was anglicized to Eisenhower Eisenhower's Pennsylvania Dutch ancestors who were primarily farmers included Hans Nicklaus Eisenhower of Carl's brron who migrated to Lancaster Pennsylvania in 1741 Hans his great-great grandson David Jacob Eisenhower 1863 to 1942 was Eisenhower's father and was a college-educated
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engineer despite his own father Jacobs urging to stay on the family farm Eisenhower's mother Ida Elizabeth Stover Eisenhower born in Virginia of German Protestant ancestry moved to Kansas from Virginia she married David on September 23rd 1885 in Lecompton Kansas on the campus of their alma mater Lane University David owned a general store in Hope Kansas but the business failed due to economic conditions and the family became impoverished the Eisenhower's then lived in Texas from
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1889 until 1892 and later returned to Kansas with $24 equivalent to 654 dollars in 2017 to their name at the time David worked as a railroad mechanic and then at a Creamery by 1898 the parents made a decent living and provided a suitable home for their large family the future president was born on October 14th 1890 in Denison Texas the third of seven boys his mother originally named him David Dwight but reversed the two names after his birth to avoid the confusion of having two
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David's in the family all of the boys were called Mike such as big Ike Edgar and little Ike Dwight the nickname was intended as an abbreviation of their last name by World War two only Dwight was still called hike in 1892 the family moved to Abilene Kansas which Eisenhower considered his hometown as a child he was involved in an accident that cost his younger brother and I he later referred to this as an experience that taught him the need to be protective of
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those under him Dwight developed a keen and enduring interest in exploring outdoors hunting fishing cooking and card playing from an illiterate named Bob Davis who camped on the Smoky Hill River while Eisenhower's mother was against war it was her collection of history books that first sparked Eisenhower's early and lasting interest in military history he persisted in reading the books in her collection and became a voracious reader on the subject other favorite subjects early in his education were arithmetic and spelling his parents set aside
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specific times at breakfast and at dinner for daily family bible reading chores were regularly assigned and rotated among all the children and misbehavior was met with unequivocal discipline usually from David his mother previously a member with David of the river Brethren sect of the Mennonites joined the International Bible Students Association later known as Jehovah's Witnesses the Eisenhower home served as the local meeting hall from 1896 to 1915 though Eisenhower never joined the International Bible students his later
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decision to attend West Point saddened his mother who felt that warfare was rather wicked but she did not overrule him while speaking of himself in 1948 Eisenhower said he was one of the most deeply religious men I know though unattached to any sect or organization he was baptized in the Presbyterian Church in 1953 Eisenhower attended Abilene High School and graduated with the class of 1909 as a freshman he injured his knee and developed a leg
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infection that extended into his groin and which his doctor diagnosed as life-threatening the doctor insisted that the leg be amputated but Dwight refused to allow it and surprisingly recovered though he had to repeat his freshman year he and brother Edgar both wanted to attend college though they lacked the funds they made a pact to take alternate years at college while the other work to earn the tuitions Edgar took the first turn at school and Dwight was employed as a night supervisor at the Bell Springs Creamery when Edgar asked for a second year
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Dwight consented and worked for a second year at that time a friend Swede hazlit was applying to the Naval Academy and urged Dwight to apply to the school since no tuition was required Eisenhower requested consideration for either Annapolis or West Point with his US Senator Joseph L Bristow though Eisenhower was among the winners of the entrance exam competition he was beyond the age limit for the Naval Academy he then accepted an appointment to West Point in 1911 at West Point
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Eisenhower relished the emphasis on traditions and on sports but was less enthusiastic about the hazing though he willingly accepted it as a plea he was also a regular violator of the more detailed regulations and finished school with a less than stellar discipline rating academically Eisenhower's best subject by far was English otherwise his performance was average though he thoroughly enjoyed the typical emphasis of engineering on Science and Mathematics in athletics Eisenhower later said that not making the baseball team at West Point was one of the
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greatest disappointments of my life maybe my greatest he made the varsity football team and was a starter as running back in linebacker in 1912 when he tackled the legendary Jim Thorpe of the Carlisle Indians Eisenhower suffered a torn knee while being tackled in the next game which was the last he played he re-injured his knee on horseback and in the boxing ring so he turned to fencing in gymnastics Eisenhower later served as junior varsity football coach and cheerleader he graduated in the middle of the class of 1915 which became
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known as the class the stars fell on because 59 members eventually became general officers topic personal life while Eisenhower was stationed in Texas he met Mamie Dowd of Boone Iowa they were immediately taken with each other he proposed to her on Valentine's Day in 1916 a November wedding date in Denver was moved up to July 1st due to the pending u.s. entry into World War one they moved many times during their first 35 years of marriage the Eisenhower's
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had two sons doubt Dwight it key Eisenhower 1917 to 1921 died of scarlet fever at the age of three Eisenhower was mostly reticent to discuss his death their second son John Eisenhower 1922 to 2013 was born in Denver Colorado John served in the United States Army retired as a brigadier general became an author and served as US ambassador to Belgium from 1969 to 1971 coincidentally John
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graduated from West Point on d-day June 6th 1944 he married Barbra Jean Thompson on June 10th 1947 John and Barbara had four children David Barbara Ann Susan Elaine and Mary Jean David after whom Camp David is named married Richard Nixon's daughter Julie in 1968 Eisenhower was a golf enthusiast later in life and he joined the Augusta National Golf Club in 1948 he played golf frequently during and
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after his presidency and was unreserved in expressing his passion for the game to the point of golfing during winter he ordered his golf balls painted black so he could see them better against snow on the ground he had a small basic golf facility installed at Camp David and became close friends with the Augusta National Chairman Clifford Roberts inviting Roberts to stay at the White House on several occasions Roberts an investment broker also handled the Eisenhower family's investments Roberts also advised Eisenhower on tax aspects of
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publishing his memoirs which proved financially lucrative oil painting was one of Eisenhower's hobbies he began painting while at Columbia University after watching Thomas E Stephens paint Mami's portrait in order to relax Eisenhower painted about 260 oils during the last 20 years of his life the images were most landscapes but also portraits of subjects such as Mamie their grandchildren general Montgomery George Washington and Abraham Lincoln Wendy Beckett stated that Eisenhower's
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work simple and earnest rather caused us to wonder at the hidden depths of this reticent president a conservative in both art and politics he in a 1962 speech denounced modern art as a piece of canvas that looks like a broken-down tin Lizzie loaded with paint has been driven over it angels in the outfield was Eisenhower's favorite movie his favorite reading material for relaxation were the Western novels of Zane Grey with his excellent memory and ability to focus Eisenhower was skilled
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at card games he learned poker which he called his favorite indoor sport in Abilene Eisenhower recorded West Point classmates poker losses for payment after graduation and later stopped playing because his opponents resented having to pay him a friend reported that after learning to play contract bridge at West Point Eisenhower played the game six nights a week for five months Eisenhower continued to play bridge throughout his military career while stationed in the Philippines he played regularly with President Manuel Khe Sahn
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and was dubbed the bridge Wizard of Manila during World War two an unwritten qualification for an officer's appointment to eisenhower staff was the ability to play a sound game of bridge he played even during the stressful weeks leading up to the d-day landings his favorite partner was General Alfred grunther considered the best player in the US Army he appointed grunther his second-in-command at NATO partly because of his skill at bridge Saturday night bridge games at the White House were a feature of his presidency he was a
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strong player though not an expert by modern standards the great bridge player and popularizer Ely Culbertson described his game as classic and sound with flashes of brilliance and said that you can always judge a man's character by the way he plays cards Eisenhower is a calm and collected player and never winds at his losses he is brilliant in victory but never commits the bridge players worst crime of gloating when he wins bridge expert Oswald Jacobi
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frequently participated in the White House games and said the president plays better bridge than golf he tries to break 90 at golf at bridge you would say he plays in the 70s Topic World War one after graduation in 1915 second lieutenant Eisenhower requested an assignment in the Philippines which was denied he served initially in logistics and then the infantry at various camps in Texas and Georgia until 1918 in 1916 while stationed at Fort Sam Houston
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Eisenhower was football coach for st. Louis College now st. Mary's University Eisenhower was an honorary member of the Sigma Beta Chi fraternity at st. Mary's University in late 1917 while in charge of training at feet o GLE Thorpe in Georgia his wife Mamie had their first son when the u.s. entered World War one he immediately requested an overseas assignment but was again denied and then assigned defeat Leavenworth Kansas in February 1918 he was transferred to Camp
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Meade in Maryland with the sixty-fifth engineers his unit was later ordered to France but to his chagrin he received orders for the new tank Corps where he was promoted to brevet lieutenant colonel in the National Army he commanded a unit that trained tank crews at Camp Colt his first command at the site of Pickett's charge on the Gettysburg Pennsylvania Civil War battle ground though Eisenhower and his tank crews never saw combat he displayed excellent organizational skills as well as an ability to accurately assess junior offices strengths and make
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optimal placements of personnel once again his spirits were raised when the unit under his command received orders overseas to France this time his wishes were thwarted when the armistice was signed a week before his departure date completely missing out on the war front left him depressed and bitter for a time despite receiving the Distinguished Service Medal for his work at home in World War two rivals who had combat service in the first Great War led by Gen Bernard Montgomery sought to denigrate Eisenhower for his previous lack of combat duty
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despite his stateside experience establishing a camp completely equipped for thousands of troops and developing a full combat training schedule topic in service of generals after the war eisenhower reverted to his regular rank of captain and a few days later was promoted to major a rank II held for 16 years the major was assigned in 1919 to a transcontinental army convoy to test vehicles and dramatize the need for improved roads in the nation indeed the convoy averaged only five
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miles per hour from Washington DC to San Francisco later the improvement of highways became a signature issue for Eisenhower as president he assumed duties again at Camp meat Maryland commanding a battalion of Tanks where he remained until 1922 his schooling continued focused on the nature of the next war in the role of the tank in it his new expertise in tank warfare was strengthened by a close collaboration with George S Patton sureno II Brett and other senior tank leaders their leading-edge ideas of speed oriented
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offensive tank warfare were strongly discouraged by superiors who considered the new approach too radical and preferred to continue using tanks in a strictly supportive role for the infantry Eisenhower was even threatened with court-martial for continued publication of these proposed methods of tank deployment and he relented from 1920 Eisenhower served under a succession of talented generals Foxx Connor John J Pershing Douglas MacArthur and George Marshall he first became executive officer to General Conner in the Panama Canal Zone we're
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joined by Mamie he served until 1924 under Connors tutelage he studied military history in theory including Carl von Clausewitz is on war and later cited Connors enormous influence on his military thinking saying in 1962 that Foxx Connor was the ablest man I ever knew Connors comment on Eisenhower was he is one of the most capable efficient and loyal officers I have ever met on Connors recommendation in 1925 26 he attended the command and General Staff
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College at Fort Leavenworth Kansas where he graduated first in a class of 245 officers he then served as a battalion commander at Fort Benning Georgia until 1927 during the late 1920s and early 1930s Eisenhower's career in the post-war Army stalled somewhat as Milly pterri priorities diminished many of his friends resigned for high-paying business jobs he was assigned to the American battle monuments Commission directed by General Pershing and with the help of his brother Milton
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Eisenhower then a journalist at the Agriculture Department he produced a guide to American battlefields in Europe he then was assigned to the Army War College and graduated in 1928 after a one-year assignment in France Eisenhower served as executive officer to General George v Moseley Assistant Secretary of War from 1929 to February 1933 major Dwight D Eisenhower graduated from the Army industrial College Washington DC in 1933 and later served
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on the faculty it was later expanded to become the industrial College of the Armed Services and is now known as the Dwight D Eisenhower school for national security and resource strategy his primary duty was planning for the next war which proved most difficult in the midst of the Great Depression he then was posted as chief military aide to General Douglas MacArthur army chief of staff in 1932 he participated in the clearing of the bonus march encampment in Washington DC although he was against the actions
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taken against the veterans and strongly advised MacArthur against taking a public role in it he later wrote the Army's official incident report endorsing MacArthur's conduct in 1935 he accompanied MacArthur to the Philippines where he served as assistant military adviser to the Philippine government in developing their army Eisenhower had strong philosophical disagreements with MacArthur regarding the role of the Philippine Army and the leadership qualities that an American army officer should exhibit and develop in his subordinates the resulting antipathy
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between Eisenhower and MacArthur lasted the rest of their lives historians have concluded that this assignment provided valuable preparation for handling the challenging personalities of Winston Churchill George S Patton George Marshall and general Montgomery during world war ii eisenhower later emphasized that too much had been made of the disagreements with macarthur and that a positive relationship endured while in manila mamie suffered a life-threatening stomach ailment but recovered fully eisenhower was promoted to the rank of permanent
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tenant colonel in 1936 he also learned to fly making a solo flight over the Philippines in 1937 and obtained his private pilot's license in 1939 at Fort Lewis also around this time he was offered a post by the Philippine Commonwealth government namely by then Philippine President Manuel L case on on recommendations by MacArthur to become the chief of police of a new capital being planned now named caisson city but he declined the offer Eisenhower returned to the United States in December 1939 and was assigned as
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commanding officer CEO of the 1st battalion 15th Infantry Regiment at Fort Lewis Washington later becoming the regimental executive officer in March 1941 he was promoted to Colonel and assigned as chief of staff of the newly activated 9th corps under Major General Kenyon Joyce in June 1941 he was appointed chief of staff to General Walter Kreuger commander of the Third Army at Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio Texas after successfully participating in the Louisiana maneuvers he was
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promoted to Brigadier General on October 3rd 1941 although his administrative abilities had been noticed on the eve of the American entry into World War two he had never held an active command above a battalion and was far from being considered by many as a potential commander of major operations topic World War two after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor Eisenhower was assigned to the General Staff in Washington where he served until June 1942 with responsibility for creating the major
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war plans to defeat Japan and Germany he was appointed deputy chief in charge of Pacific defenses under the chief of war plans division WPD General Leonard T gyro and then succeeded Jareau as chief of the war plans division next he was appointed assistant chief of staff in charge of the new operations division which replaced WPD under Chief of Staff General George C Marshall who spotted Talent and promoted accordingly at the end of May 1942 Eisenhower accompanied Lieutenant Gen Henry H Arnold commanding
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general of the Army Air Forces to London to assess the effectiveness of the theater commander in England Maj Gen James II Jamie he returned to Washington on June 3rd with a pessimistic assessment stating he had an uneasy feeling about Cheney and his staff on June 23rd 1942 he returned to London as commanding general European theater of operations eto USA based in London and with a house on Combe Kingston upon Thames and took over command of eto USA
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from Cheney he was promoted to lieutenant general on July 7th topic operations torch and avalanche in November 1942 Eisenhower was also appointed supreme commander Allied expeditionary force of the North African theater of operations and ATO USA through the new operational headquarters Allied expeditionary force headquarters AEF HQ the word expeditionary was dropped soon after his appointment for security reasons the campaign in North
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Africa was designated Operation Torch and was planned underground within the Rock of Gibraltar Eisenhower was the first non-british person to command Gibraltar in 200 years french cooperation was deemed necessary to the campaign and Eisenhower encountered a preposterous situation with the multiple rival factions in France his primary objective was to move forces successfully into Tunisia and intending to facilitate that objective he gave his support to Francois Darland as High Commissioner in North Africa despite Darlins previous high Offices of
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state and Vichy France and his continued role as commander-in-chief of the French Armed Forces the Allied leaders were thunderstruck by this from a political standpoint though none of them had offered Eisenhower guidance with the problem in the course of planning the operation Eisenhower was severely criticized for the move Darlan was assassinated on December 24th by Fernand bonheur de la Chapelle Eisenhower did not take action to prevent the arrest and extrajudicial execution of bonheur de la Chapelle by associates of Darlan
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acting without authority from either Vichy or the Allies considering it a criminal rather than a military matter Eisenhower later appointed as High Commissioner General on Rijo who had been installed by the Allies as Darlins commander-in-chief and who had refused to postpone the execution Operation Torch also served as a valuable training ground for Eisenhower's combat command skills during the initial phase of Generalfeldmarschall Erwin Rommels move into the Kasserine pass Eisenhower created some confusion in the ranks by some interference with the execution of
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battle plans by his subordinates he also was initially indecisive in his removal of Lloyd Fredendall commanding US second corps he became more adroit in such matters in later campaigns in February 1943 his authority was extend as commander of a fhq across the Mediterranean Basin to include the British Eighth Army commanded by General Sir Bernard Montgomery the Eighth Army had advanced across the western desert from the east and was ready for the start of the Tunisia campaign Eisenhower
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gained his fourth star and gave up command of eto USA to become commander of an ATO USA after the capitulation of Axis forces in North Africa Eisenhower oversaw the invasion of Sicily once Mussolini the Italian leader had fallen in Italy the Allies switched their attention to the mainland with operation avalanche but while Eisenhower argued with President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Churchill who both insisted on unconditional terms of surrender in exchange for helping the Italians the
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Germans pursued an aggressive buildup of forces in the country the Germans made the already tough battle more difficult by adding 19 divisions and initially outnumbering the Allied forces two to one topic supreme Allied commander and Operation Overlord in December 1943 President Roosevelt decided that Eisenhower not Marshall would be supreme Allied commander in Europe the following month he resumed command of eto USA and the following month was officially designated as the
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supreme Allied commander of the Allied expeditionary force sha e F serving in a dual role until the end of hostilities in Europe in May 1945 he was charged in these positions with planning and carrying out the Allied assault on the coast of Normandy in June 1944 under the codename Operation Overlord the liberation of Western Europe and the invasion of Germany Eisenhower as well as the officers and troops under him had learned valuable lessons in their previous operations and their skills had all strengthened in preparation for the
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next most difficult campaign against the Germans a beach landing assault his first struggles however were with allied leaders and officers on matters vital to the success of the Normandy invasion he argued with Roosevelt over an essential agreement with de Gaulle to use French Resistance forces in covert and sabotage operations against the Germans in advance of overlord Admiral Ernest J King thought with Eisenhower over King's refusal to provide additional landing craft from the Pacific he also insisted that the British give him exclusive
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command over all strategic air forces to facilitate Overlord to the point of threatening to resign unless Churchill relented as he did Eisenhower then designed a bombing plan in France in advance of Overlord and argued with Churchill over the latter's concern with civilian casualties de Gaulle interjected that the casualties were justified in shedding the yoke of the Germans and Eisenhower prevailed he also had to skillfully managed to retain the services of the often unruly George S Patton by severely reprimanding him when Patton earlier had slapped a
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subordinate and then when Patton gave a speech in which he made improper comments about post-war policy the d-day Normandy landings On June 6 1944 were costly but successful two months later August 15 the invasion of southern France took place and control of forces in the southern invasion passed from the AF HQ to the SHA EF many thought that victory in Europe would come by summer's end but the Germans did not capitulate for almost from then until the end of the war in
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Europe on May 8 1945 Eisenhower through sha EF commanded all Allied forces and through his command of eto USA had administrative command of all US forces on the Western Front north of the Alps he was ever mindful of the inevitable loss of life and suffering that would be experienced on an individual level by the troops under his command and their families this prompted him to make a point of visiting every division involved in the invasion Eisenhower's sense of responsibility was underscored by his draft of a statement to be issued
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if the invasion failed it has been called one of the great speeches of history our landings in the shurberg Havre area have failed to gain a satisfactory foothold and I have withdrawn the troops my decision to attack at this time in place was based on the best information available the troops the air and the Navy did all that bravery and devotion to duty could do if any blame or fault attaches to the attempt it is mine alone topic liberation of France and victory in Europe
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once the coastal assault had succeeded Eisenhower insisted on retaining personal control over the land battle strategy and was immersed in the command and supply of multiple assaults through France on Germany Field Marshal Montgomery insisted priority be given to his 21st Army Group Sutekh being made in the north while generals Bradley 12th US Army Group endeavors 6th US Army Group insisted they be given priority in the center and south of the front respectively Eisenhower worked tirelessly to address the demands of the
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rival commanders to optimize Allied forces often by giving them tactical latitude many historians conclude this delayed the Allied victory in Europe however due to Eisenhower's persistence the pivotal supply port at Antwerp was successfully albeit belatedly opened in late 1944 and victory became a more distinct probability in recognition of his senior position in the Allied command on December 20th 1944 he was promoted to General of the army equivalent to the rank of Field Marshal in most European armies in this and the
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previous high commands he held Eisenhower showed his great talents for leadership and diplomacy although he had never seen action himself he won the respect of front-line commanders he interacted adeptly with allies such as Winston Churchill Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery and General Charles de Gaulle he had serious disagreements with Churchill and Montgomery over questions of strategy but these rarely upset his relationships with them he dealt with Soviet marshal Zhukov his Russian counterpart and they
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became good friends in December 1944 the Germans launched a surprise counter-offensive the Battle of the Bulge which the Allies turned back in early 1945 after Eisenhower repositioned his armies and improved weather allowed the Air Force to engage German defenses continued to deteriorate on both the Eastern Front with the Soviets in the Western Front with the Allies the British wanted to capture Berlin but Eisenhower decided it would be a military mistake for him to attack Berlin and said orders to that effect would have to be explicit the British
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backed down but then one did Eisenhower to move into Czechoslovakia for political reasons Washington refused to support Churchill's plan to use Eisen armie for political maneuvers against Moscow the actual division of Germany followed the lines that Roosevelt Churchill and Stalin had previously agreed upon the Soviet Red Army captured Berlin in a very large-scale bloody battle and the Germans finally surrendered on May 7 1945 in 1945 Eisenhower anticipated that someday an attempt would be made to recharacterize
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Nazi crimes as propaganda Holocaust denial and took steps against it by demanding extensive still and movie photographic documentation of Nazi death camps topic after World War two you topic military governor in Germany and army chief of staff following the German unconditional surrender Eisenhower was appointed military governor of the American occupation zone located primarily in southern Germany and headquartered at the IG Farben building
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in Frankfurt AM main upon discovery of the Nazi concentration camps he ordered camera crews to document evidence of the atrocities in them for use in the Nuremberg trials he reclassified German prisoners of war housed in US custody as disarmed enemy forces deaths who were no longer subject to the Geneva Convention Eisenhower followed the orders laid down by the Joint Chiefs of Staff JCS in directive JCS 1067 but softened them by bringing in 400,000 tons of food for civilians and allowing more
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fraternization in response to the devastation in Germany including food shortages and an influx of refugees he arranged distribution of American food and medical equipment his actions reflected the new American attitudes of the German people as Nazi victims not villains while aggressively purging the ex Nazis in November 1945 Eisenhower returned to Washington to replace Marshall as chief of staff of the army his main role was rapid the mobilization of millions of soldiers a slow job that was delayed by lack of
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shipping Eisenhower was convinced in 1946 that the Soviet Union did not want war and that friendly relations could be maintained he strongly supported the new United Nations and favoured its involvement in the control of atomic bombs however in formulating policies regarding the atomic bomb and relations with the Soviets Truman was guided by the US State Department and ignored Eisenhower in the Pentagon indeed Eisenhower had opposed the use of the atomic bomb against the Japanese writing first the Japanese were ready to
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surrender and it wasn't necessary to hit them with that awful thing second I hated to see our country be the first to use such a weapon initially Eisenhower hoped for cooperation with the Soviets he even visited Warsaw in 1945 invited by bola suave brute and decorated with the highest military decoration he was shocked by the scale of destruction in the city however by mid-1940s tensions over economic recovery in Germany and the Greek civil war escalated Eisenhower
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agreed with a containment policy to stop Soviet expansion topic 1948 presidential election in June 1943 a visiting politician had suggested to Eisenhower that he might become president of the United States after the war believing that a general should not participate in politics one author later wrote that figuratively speaking Eisenhower kicked his political minded visitor out of his office as others asked him about his political future Eisenhower told one that he could not
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imagine wanting to be considered for any political job from dogcatcher to Grand High supreme king of the universe and another that he could not serve as army chief of staff if others believed he had political ambitions in 1945 Truman told Eisenhower during the Potsdam Conference that if desired the president would help the general win the 1948 election and in 1947 he offered to run as Eisenhower's running mate on the Democratic ticket if MacArthur won the Republican nomination as the election approached other
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prominent citizens and politicians from both parties urged Eisenhower to run for president in January 1948 after learning of plans in New Hampshire to elect delegates supporting him for the forthcoming Republican National Convention Eisenhower stated through the army that he was not available for and could not accept nomination to high political office lifelong professional soldiers he wrote in the absence of some obvious and overriding reason should abstain from seeking high political
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office Eisenhower maintained no political party affiliation during this time many believed he was foregoing his only opportunity to be President Republican Thomas e Dewey was considered the probable winner and would presumably serve two terms meaning that Eisenhower at age 66 in 1956 would be too old to have another chance to run topic president at Columbia University and NATO's supreme commander in 1948 Eisenhower became president of Columbia University an Ivy League
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university in New York City where he was inducted into Phi Beta Kappa the assignment was described as not being a good fit in either direction during that year Eisenhower's memoir crusade in Europe was published critics regarded it as one of the finest US military memoirs and it was a major financial success as well Eisenhower's profit on the book was substantially aided by an unprecedented ruling by the u.s. department of the treasury that Eisenhower was not a professional writer but rather marketing
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the lifetime acid of his experiences and thus he had to pay only capital gains tax on his $635,000 advance instead of the much higher personal tax rate this ruling saved Eisenhower about $400,000 Eisenhower's stint as the president of Columbia University was punctuated by his activity within the Council on Foreign Relations a study group he led his president concerning the political and military implications of the Marshall Plan and the American assembly Eisenhower's vision of a great cultural
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center where business professional and governmental leaders could meet from time to time to discuss and reach conclusions concerning problems of a social and political nature his biographer Blanche wiesen Cooke suggested that this period served as the political education of General Eisenhower since he had to prioritize wide-ranging educational administrative and financial demands for the university through his involvement in the Council on Foreign Relations he also gained exposure to economic analysis which
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would become the bedrock of his understanding and economic policy whatever General Eisenhower knows about economics he has learned at the study group meetings one aid to Europe member claimed Eisenhower accepted the presidency of the University to expand his ability to promote the American form of democracy through education he was clear on this point to the trustees involved in the search committee he informed them that his main purpose was to promote the basic concepts of
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education in a democracy as a result he was almost incessant devoted to the idea of the American assembly a concept he developed into an institution by the end of 1950 within months of beginning his tenure as the president of the University Eisenhower was requested to advise US Secretary of Defense James Forrestal on the unification of the Armed Services about six months after his appointment he became the informal chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in Washington two months later he fell ill and he spent
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over a month in recovery at the Augusta National Golf Club he returned to his post in New York in mid-may and in July 1949 took a two-month vacation out of state because the American assembly had begun to take shape he travelled around the country during mid to late 1950 building financial support from Columbia associates and Alumni Association Eisenhower was unknowingly building resentment and a reputation among the Columbia University faculty and staff as an absentee president who was using the
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University for his own interests as a career military man he naturally had little in common with the academics the contacts gained through University and American Assembly fundraising activities would later become important supporters in Eisenhower's bid for the Republican Party nomination in the presidency meanwhile Columbia University's liberal faculty members became disenchanted with the university presidents ties to oil men and businessmen including Leonard McCollum the president of Continental oil Frank Abrams the chairman of
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Standard Oil of New Jersey Bob Clayburgh the president of the King Ranch HJ Porter a Texas oil executive Bob Woodruff the president of the coca-cola Corporation and Clarence Francis the chairman of General Foods as the president of Columbia Eisenhower gave voice and form to his opinions about the supremacy and difficulties of American democracy his tenure marked his transformation from military to civilian leadership his biographer Travis Beale Jacobs also suggested that the alienation of the Columbia faculty contributed to sharp
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intellectual criticism of him for many years the trustees of Columbia University refused to accept Eisenhower's resignation in December 1950 when he took an extended leave from the University to become the supreme commander of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO and he was given operational command of NATO forces in Europe Eisenhower retired from active service as an Army General on May 31st 1952 and he resumed his presidency of Columbia he held this position until January 20th
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1953 when he became the president of the United States NATO did not have strong bipartisan support in Congress at the time that Eisenhower assumed its military command Eisenhower advised the participating European nations that it would be incumbent upon them to demonstrate their own commitment of troops and equipment to the NATO force before such would come from the war weary United States at home Eisenhower was more effective in making the case for NATO in Congress than the Truman administration had been by the middle of
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1951 with American and European support NATO was a genuine military power nevertheless Eisenhower thought that NATO would become a truly European alliance with the American and Canadian commitments ending after about ten years topic presidential campaign of 1952 President Truman symbolizing a broad-based desire for an Eisenhower candidacy for president again in 1951 pressed him to run for the office as a Democrat it was at this time that Eisenhower voiced his disagreements with the Democratic Party and declared
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himself and his family to be Republicans a draft Eisenhower movement in the Republican Party persuaded him to declare his candidacy in the 1952 presidential election to counter the candidacy of non-interventionist senator Robert a Taft the effort was a long struggle Eisenhower had to be convinced that political circumstances had created a genuine duty for him to offer himself as a candidate and that there was a mandate from the populace for him to be their president Henry Cabot Lodge who served as his campaign manager and
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others succeeded in convincing him and in June 1952 he resigned his command at NATO to campaign full-time Eisenhower defeated Taft for the nomination having won critical delegate votes from Texas Eisenhower's campaign was noted for the simple but effective slogan I like Ike it was essential to his success that Eisenhower expressed opposition to Roosevelt's policy at Yalta and against Truman's policies in Korea and China matters in which he had once participated in defeating Taft for the
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nomination it became necessary for Eisenhower to appease the right-wing old guard of the Republican Party his selection of Richard M Nixon as the vice president on the ticket was designed in part for that purpose Nixon also provided a strong anti-communist presence as well as some youth to counter Ike's more advanced age in the general election against the advice of his advisers Eisenhower insisted on campaigning in the south refusing to surrender the region to the Democratic Party the campaign strategy dubbed K 1 C
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2 was to focus on attacking the Truman and Roosevelt administration's on three issues Korea communism and corruption in an effort to accommodate the right he stressed that the liberation of Eastern Europe should be by peaceful means only he also distanced himself from his former boss President Truman two controversies during the campaign tested him and his staff but did not affect the campaign one involved a report that Nixon had him properly received funds from a secret trust Nixon spoke out adroitly to avoid
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potential damage but the matter permanently alienated the two candidates the second issue centered on Eisenhower's relented decision to confront the controversial methods of Joseph McCarthy on his home turf in a Wisconsin appearance just two weeks prior to the election Eisenhower vowed to go to Korea and end the war there he promised to maintain a strong commitment against communism while avoiding the topic of NATO finally he stressed a corruption-free frugal administration at home he defeated Democratic candidate Adlai
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Stevenson - in a landslide with an electoral margin of 440 to 289 marking the first Republican returned to the White House in 20 years in the election he also brought with him a Republican majority in the House by eight votes and in the Senate actually a tie with Nixon providing the majority vote Eisenhower was the last president born in the 19th century and at age 62 was the oldest man elected president since James Buchanan in 1856 President Truman stood at 64 in 1948 as
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the incumbent president having succeeded to the presidency in 1945 upon the death of Franklin Roosevelt Eisenhower was the only general to serve as president in the 20th century and was the most recent president to have never held elected office prior to the presidency until Donald Trump who never held public office nor served in the military the other presidents who did not have prior elected office were Zachary Taylor ulysses s grant William Howard Taft and Herbert Hoover topic election of 1956
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the United States presidential election of 1956 was held on November 6 to 1956 Eisenhower the popular incumbent successfully ran for re-election the election was a rematch of 1952 as his opponent in 1956 was Stevenson a former Illinois governor whom Eisenhower had defeated four years earlier compared to the 1952 election Eisenhower game Kentucky Louisiana and West Virginia from Stevenson while losing Missouri his
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voters were less likely to bring up his leadership record instead what stood out this time was the response to personal qualities to his sincerity his integrity and sense of duty his virtue as a family man his religious devotion and his sheer likable Ness topic presidency 1953 to 1961 due to a complete estrangement between the two as a result of campaigning Truman and Eisenhower had minimal discussions about the transition of administration's after selecting his budget director Joseph M Dodge
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Eisenhower asked Herbert Brownell jr. and Lucius D clay to make recommendations for his cabinet appointments he accepted their recommendations without exception they included John Foster Dulles and George M Humphrey with whom he developed his closest relationships and one woman Aveda culpa B Eisenhower's cabinet consisting of several corporate executives and one labor leader was dubbed by one journalist eight millionaires and a plumber the cabinet was known for its lack of personal friends office seekers or experienced
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government administrators he also upgraded the role of the National Security Council in planning all phases of the Cold War prior to his inauguration Eisenhower led a meeting of advisers at Pearl Harbor addressing for most issues agreed objectives were to balance the budget during his term to bring the Korean War to an end to defend vital interests at lower cost through nuclear deterrent and to end price and wage controls Eisenhower also conducted the first pre inaugural cabinet meeting in history in late 1952 he used this meeting to
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articulate his anti-communist Russia policy his inaugural address was also exclusively devoted to foreign policy and included this same philosophy as well as a commitment to foreign trade in the United Nations Eisenhower made greater use of press conferences than any previous president holding almost 200 over his two terms while he saw the benefit of maintaining a good relationship with the press he saw more value in them as a means of direct communication with the American people throughout his presidency Eisenhower
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adhered to a political philosophy of dynamic conservatism a self-described progressive conservative who used terms like progressive moderate and dynamic conservatism to describe his approach he continued all the major New Deal programs still in operation especially Social Security he expanded its programs and rolled them into a new cabinet level agency the Department of Health Education and Welfare while extending benefits to an addition ten million workers he implemented
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integration in the armed services in two years which had not been completed under Truman when the 1954 congressional elections approached it became evident that the Republicans were in danger of losing their thin majority in both houses Eisenhower was among those who blamed the old guard for the losses and he took up the charge to stop suspected efforts by the right-wing to take control of the GOP Eisenhower then articulated his position as a moderate progressive Republican I have just one purpose and that is to build up a strong
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progressive Republican Party in this country if the right wing wants a fight they are going to get it before I end up either this Republican Party will reflect progressivism or I won't be with them anymore Eisenhower initially planned on serving only one term but as with other decisions he maintained a position of maximum flexibility in case leading Republicans wanted him to run again during his recovery from a heart attack late in 1955 September 25th he huddled
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with his closest advisors to evaluate the gops potential candidates the group in addition to his doctor concluded a second term was well advised and he announced in February 1956 he would run again Eisenhower was publicly non-committal about Nixon's repeating as the Vice President on his ticket the question was an especially important one in light of his heart condition he personally favored Robert B Anderson a Democrat who rejected his offer Eisenhower then resolved to leave the matter in the hands of the party in 1956
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Eisenhower faced Adlai Stevenson again and won by an even larger landslide with 457 of 531 electoral votes and 57 point six percent of the popular vote the level of campaigning was curtailed out of health considerations Eisenhower valued the brief respite and the amenities of an office which he endowed with an arduous daily schedule he made full use of his valet chauffeur and secretarial support he rarely drove or dialed a phone number he was an avid fisherman golfer painter and bridge
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player and preferred active rather than passive forms of entertainment on August 26th 1959 Eisenhower was aboard the maiden flight of Air Force One which replaced the previous presidential aircraft the Columbine topic interstate highway system Eisenhower was assured of an enduring achievement when he championed and signed the bill that authorized the interstate highway system in 1956 he justified the project through the federal aid Highway Act of 1956 as essential to American security during
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the Cold War it was believed that large cities would be targets in a possible war hence the highways were designed to facilitate their evacuation and ease military maneuvers Eisenhower's goal to create improved highways was influenced by difficulties encountered during his involvement in the US Army's 1919 transcontinental motor convoy he was assigned as an observer for the mission which involved sending a convoy of US army vehicles coast-to-coast his subsequent experience with encountering German Autobahn limited access road
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systems during the concluding stages of World War two convinced him of the benefits of an interstate highway system the interstate highway system could also be used as a runway for airplanes which would be beneficial to war efforts this system was put into place by Franklin D Roosevelt in 1944 under the federal aid Highway Act of 1944 noticing the improved ability to move logistics throughout the country he thought an interstate highway system in the u.s. would not only be beneficial for military operations but provide a
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measure of continued economic growth the legislation initially stalled in the Congress over the issuance of bonds to finance the project but the legislative effort was renewed and the law was signed by Eisenhower in June 1956 topic foreign policy in 1953 the Republican Party's old guard presented Eisenhower with a dilemma by insisting he disavowed the Yalta agreements as beyond the constitutional authority of the executive branch however the death of Joseph Stalin in March 1953 made the matter a moot point
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at this time Eisenhower gave his chance for peace speech in which he attempted unsuccessfully to forestall the nuclear arms race with the Soviet Union by suggesting multiple opportunities presented by peaceful uses of nuclear materials biographers Stephen Ambrose opined that this was the best speech of Eisenhower's presidency nevertheless the Cold War escalated during his presidency when the Soviet Union successfully tested a hydrogen bomb in late November 1955 Eisenhower against the advice of
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Dulles decided to initiate a disarmament proposal to the Soviets in an attempt to make their refusal more difficult he proposed that both sides agreed to dedicate fissionable material away from weapons toward peaceful uses such as power generation this approach was labeled atoms for peace the UN speech was well received but the Soviets never acted upon it due to an overarching concern for the greater stockpiles of nuclear weapons in the u.s. arsenal indeed Eisenhower embarked upon a greater reliance on the use of nuclear
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weapons while reducing conventional forces and with them the overall defense budget a policy formulated as a result of project solarium and expressed in NSC 162 halves this approach became known as the new look and was initiated with defense cuts in late 1953 in 1955 American nuclear arms policy became one aimed primarily at arms control as opposed to disarmament the failure of negotiations over arms until 1955 was due mainly to the refusal of the
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Russians to permit any sort of inspections in talks located in London that year they expressed a willingness to discuss inspections the tables were then turned on Eisenhower when he responded with an unwillingness on the part of the u.s. to permit inspections in May of that year the Russians agreed to sign a treaty giving independence to Austria and paved the way for a Geneva summit with the US UK and France at the Geneva Conference Eisenhower a proposal called open skies to facilitate disarmament which included
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plans for Russia in the u.s. to provide mutual access to each other's skies for open surveillance of military infrastructure Russian leader Nikita Khrushchev dismissed the proposal out of hand in 1954 Eisenhower articulated the domino theory in his outlook towards communism in Southeast Asia and also in Central America he believed that if the Communists were allowed to prevail in Vietnam this would cause a succession of countries to fall to communism from Laos through Malaysia and Indonesia ultimately to India likewise the fall of
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Guatemala would end with the fall of neighboring Mexico that year the loss of North Vietnam to the Communists and the rejection of his proposed European defense community EDC were serious defeats but he remained optimistic in his opposition to the spread of communism saying long faces don't win wars as he had threatened the French in their rejection of EDC he afterwards mood to restore West Germany as a full NATO partner with Eisenhower's leadership and Dulles direction CIA activities increased under the pretense
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of resisting the spread of communism in poorer countries the CIA in part deposed the leaders of Iran in operation Ajax of Guatemala through operation pbsuccess and possibly the newly independent Republic of the Congo Leopoldville in 1954 Eisenhower wanted to increase surveillance inside the Soviet Union with Dulles recommendation he authorized the deployment of 30 Lockheed u2's at a cost of 35 million dollars equivalent to 318 point nine five million dollars in
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2017 the Eisenhower administration also planned the Bay of Pigs invasion to overthrow Fidel Castro in Cuba which John F Kennedy was left to carry out topic space race Eisenhower and the CIA had known since at least January 1957 nine months before Sputnik that Russia had the capability to launch a small payload into orbit and was likely to do so within a year he may also privately have welcomed the Russian satellite for its legal implications by launching a satellite Russia had in effect
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acknowledged that space was open to anyone who could access it without needing permission from other nations on the whole Eisenhower's support of the nation's fledgling space program was officially modest until the Soviet launch of Sputnik in 1957 gaining the Cold War enemy enormous prestige around the world he then launched a national campaign that funded not just space exploration but a major strengthening of science and higher education the Eisenhower administration determined to adopt a non aggressive policy that would
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allow spacecrafts of any state to overfly all states a region free of military posturing and launch earth satellites to explore space his open skies policy attempted to legitimize illegal lockheed u-2 flyovers and project Genetrix while paving the way for spy satellite technology to orbit over sovereign territory however Nikolai Bulganin and Nikita Khrushchev declined Eisenhower's proposal at the Geneva Conference in July 1955 in response to Sputnik being launched in October 1957
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Eisenhower created NASA as a civilian space agency in October 1958 signed a landmark science education law and improved relations with American scientists fear spread through the United States that the Soviet Union would invade and spread communism so Eisenhower wanted to not only create a surveillance satellite to detect any threats but ballistic missiles that would protect the United States in strategic terms it was Eisenhower who devised the American basic strategy of nuclear deterrence based upon the triad of b-52 bombers land-based intercontinental
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ballistic missiles ICBMs and Polaris submarine launched ballistic missiles SLBMs NASA planners projected that human spaceflight would pull the United States ahead in the space race as well as accomplishing their longtime goal however in 90 60 an ad-hoc panel on man in space concluded that man in space can not be justified and was too costly Eisenhower later resented the space program in its gargantuan price tag he was quoted as saying anyone who would spend forty billion dollars in a race to
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the moon for national prestige is nuts topic Korean War free China and Red China in late 1952 Eisenhower went to Korea and discovered a military and political stalemate once in office when the Chinese Communists began to build up in the Kaesong sanctuary he threatened to use nuclear force if an armistice was not concluded his earlier military reputation in Europe was effective with the Chinese Communists the National Security Council the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Strategic Air Command sac
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devised detailed plans for nuclear war against Red China with the death of Stalin in early March 1953 Russian support for a Chinese Communists hardline weakened and Red China decided to compromise on the prisoner issue in July 1953 an armistice took effect with Korea divided along approximately the same boundary as in 1950 the Armistice and boundary remain in effect today the armistice concluded despite opposition from secretary Dulles South Korean president Syngman Rhee and also within
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Eisenhower's party has been described by biographer Ambrose as the greatest achievement of the administration Eisenhower had the insight to realize that unlimited war in the nuclear age was unthinkable and limited war unwinnable a point of emphasis in Ike's campaign had been his endorsement of a policy of liberation from communism as opposed to a policy of containment this remained his preference despite the armistice with Korea throughout his terms Eisenhower took a hard-line attitude toward Red China as demanded by conservative Republicans with the goal
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of driving a wedge between Red China and the Soviet Union Eisenhower continued Truman's policy of recognizing the Republic of China free China as the legitimate government of China not the Beijing regime there were localized flare-ups when the People's Liberation Army began shelling the islands of komoi and Matsu in September 1954 Eisenhower received recommendations embracing every variation of response to the aggression of the Chinese Communists he thought it essential to have every possible option available to him as the
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crisis unfolded the sino-american mutual defense treaty with the Republic of China was signed in December 1954 he requested and secured from Congress their free China resolution in January 1950 which gave eisenhower unprecedented power in advance to use military force at any level of his choosing in defense of free China in the pescadores the resolution bolstered the morale of the Chinese nationalists and signaled to Beijing that the US was committed to holding the line Eisenhower openly
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threatened the Chinese Communists with use of nuclear weapons authorizing a series of bomb tests labeled Operation teapot nevertheless he left the Chinese Communists guessing as to the exact nature of his nuclear response this allowed Eisenhower to accomplish all of his objectives the end of this communist encroachment the retention of the islands by the Chinese nationalists and continued peace defense of the Republic of China from an invasion remains a core American policy by the end of 1954 Eisenhower's military and
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foreign policy experts the NSC JCS and State Department had unanimously urged him on no less than five occasions to launch an atomic attack against Red China yet he consistently refused to do so and felt a distinct sense of accomplishment in having sufficiently confronted communism while keeping world peace topic the Middle East and Eisenhower Doctrine even before he was inaugurated Eisenhower accepted a request from the British government to restore the Shah of Iran Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to power
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he therefore authorized the Central Intelligence Agency to overthrow Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh this resulted in an increased strategic control over Iranian oil by US and British companies in November 1956 Eisenhower forced an end to the combined British French and Israeli invasion of Egypt in response to the suez crisis receiving praise from Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser simultaneously he condemned the brutal Soviet invasion of Hungary in response to the Hungarian
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Revolution of 1956 he publicly disavowed his allies at the United Nations and used financial and diplomatic pressure to make them withdraw from Egypt Eisenhower explicitly defended his strong position against Britain and France in his memoirs which were published in 1965 after the Suez Crisis the United States became the protector of unstable friendly governments in the Middle East via the Eisenhower Doctrine designed by Secretary of State Dulles it held the US would be prepared to use armed force
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to counter aggression from any country controlled by international communism further the United States would provide economic and military aid and if necessary use military force to stop the spread of communism in the Middle East Eisenhower applied the doctrine in 1957-58 by dispensing economic aid to shore up the Kingdom of Jordan and by encouraging Syria's neighbors to consider military operations against it more dramatically in July 1958 he sent
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15,000 maureen's and soldiers to Lebanon as part of Operation Blue bat a non-combat peacekeeping mission to stabilize the pro-western government and to prevent a radical revolution from sweeping over that country the mission proved a success and the Marines departed three months later the deployment came in response to the urgent request of Lebanese president Camille Shamoon after sectarian violence had erupted in the country Washington considered the military intervention successful since it brought about regional stability weaken Soviet influence and intimidated the Egyptian
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and Syrian government's who's Andy West political position had hardened after the suez crisis most Arab countries were skeptical about that Eisenhower doctrine because they considered Zionist imperialism the real danger however they did take the opportunity to obtain free money and weapons Egypt and Syria supported by the Soviet Union openly opposed the initiative however Egypt received American aid until the six-day war in 1967 as the Cold War deepened Dulles sought to isolate the Soviet
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Union by building regional alliances of nations against it critics sometimes called it pack toe mania topic Southeast Asia you early in 1953 the French asked Eisenhower for help in French Indochina against the Communists supplied from China who were fighting the first Indochina war Eisenhower sent Lieutenant General John W Iron Mike O'Daniel to Vietnam to study and assess the French forces their chief of staff Matthew
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Ridgway dissuaded the president from intervening by presenting a comprehensive estimate of the massive military deployment that would be necessary Eisenhower's stated prophetically that this war would absorb our troops by divisions Eisenhower did provide France with bombers and non-combat personnel after a few months with no success by the French he added other aircraft to drop napalm for clearing purposes further requests for assistance from the French were agreed to but only on conditions Eisenhower knew were impossible to meet allied
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participation and congressional approval when the French Fortress of Dien Bien Phu fell to the Vietnamese communists in May 1954 Eisenhower refused to intervene despite urgings from the chairman of the Joint Chiefs the vice president and the head of NCS Eisenhower responded to the French defeat with the formation of the Sea Tow Southeast Asia Treaty Organization Alliance with the UK France New Zealand and Australia in defense of Vietnam against communism at that time the French and Chinese reconvened Geneva peace talks Eisenhower agreed the US
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would participate only as an observer after France and the Communists agreed to a partition of Vietnam Eisenhower rejected the agreement offering military and economic aid to southern Vietnam Ambrose argues that Eisenhower by not participating in the Geneva agreement had kept the u.s. out of Vietnam nevertheless with the formation of C doe he had in the end put the us back into the conflict in late 1954 Jen chieh Lawton Collins was made ambassador to free Vietnam the term South Vietnam came
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into use in 1955 effectively elevating the country to sovereign status Collins instructions were to support the leader Ngo Dinh Diem in subverting communism by helping him to build an army and wage a military campaign in February 1955 Eisenhower dispatched the first American soldiers to Vietnam as pterri advisors to diems army after diem anounced the formation of the Republic of Vietnam our VN commonly known as South Vietnam in October Eisenhower immediately recognized the new state and
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offered military economic and technical assistance in the years that followed Eisenhower increased the number of US military advisers in South Vietnam to 900 men this was due to North Vietnam's supportive uprisings in the south and concern the nation would fall in May 1957 diem then president of South Vietnam made a state visit to the United States for 10 days President Eisenhower pledged his continued support and a parade was held in diems honor in New York City although diem was publicly praised in
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private Secretary of State John Foster Dulles conceded that diem had been selected because there were no better alternatives after the election of November 1960 Eisenhower in briefing with John F Kennedy pointed out the communist threat in Southeast Asia as requiring prioritization in the next administration Eisenhower told Kennedy he considered Laos the cork in the bottle with regard to the regional threat topic 1960 you to incident on May 1st 1960 a us one man you to spy
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plane was reportedly shot down at high altitude over Soviet Union airspace the flight was made to gain photo intelligence before the scheduled opening of an east-west Summit Conference which had been scheduled in Paris 15 days later captain Francis Gary Powers had bailed out of his aircraft and was captured after parachuting down onto Russian soil four days after powers disappeared the Eisenhower administration had NASA issue a very detailed press release noting that an aircraft had gone missing north
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of Turkey it's speculated that the pilot might have fallen unconscious while the autopilot was still engaged and falsely claimed that the pilot reported over the emergency frequency that he was experiencing oxygen difficulties Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev announced that a spy plane had been shot down but intentionally made no reference to the pilot as a result the Eisenhower administration thinking the pilot had died in the crash authorized the release of a cover story claiming that the plane
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was a weather research aircraft which had unintentionally strayed into Soviet airspace after the pilot had radioed difficulties with his oxygen equipment while flying over Turkey the Soviets put captain Powers on trial and displayed parts of the u2 which had been recovered almost fully intact the four-power Paris summit in May 1960 with Eisenhower Nikita Khrushchev Harold Macmillan and Charles DeGaulle collapsed because of the incident Eisenhower refused to accede to Khrushchev's demands that he apologize
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therefore Khrushchev would not take part in the summit up until this event Eisenhower felt he had been making progress towards better relations with the Soviet Union nuclear arms reduction in Berlin were to have been discussed at the summit Eisenhower stated it had all been ruined because of that stupid YouTube business the affair was an embarrassment for United States prestige further the Senate Foreign Relations Committee held a lengthy inquiry into the u-2 incident in Russia captain Powers made a forced confession
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and apology on August 19 1960 Powers was convicted of espionage and sentenced to imprisonment On February 10th 1962 Powers was exchanged for Rudolf Abel in Berlin and returned to the US topic civil rights while President Truman had begun the process of desegregating the armed forces in 1948 actual implementation had been slow Eisenhower made clear his stance in his first State of the Union address in February 1953 saying I
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proposed to use whatever authority exists in the office of the President to end segregation in the District of Columbia including the federal government and any segregation in the Armed Forces when he encountered opposition from the services he used government control of military spending to force the change through stating wherever federal funds are expended I do not see how any American can justify a discrimination in the expenditure of
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those funds when Robert B Anderson Eisenhower's first secretary of the Navy argued that the US Navy must recognize the customs and usages prevailing in certain geographic areas of our country which the Navy had no part in creating Eisenhower overruled him we have not taken and we shall not take a single backward step there must be no second-class citizens in this country the administration declared racial discrimination a national security issue as communists around the world used the
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racial discrimination and history of violence in the US as a point of propaganda attack Eisenhower told District of Columbia officials to make Washington a model for the rest of the country and integrating black and white public school children he proposed to Congress the Civil Rights Act of 1957 and of 1960 and signed those acts into law the 1957 Act for the first time established a permanent civil rights office inside the Justice Department and a Civil Rights Commission to hear testimony about abuses of voting rights
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although both acts were much weaker than subsequent civil rights legislation they constituted the first significant civil rights act since 1875 in 1957 the state of Arkansas refused to honor a federal court order to integrate their public school system stemming from the brown decision Eisenhower demanded that Arkansas governor Orval Faubus obeyed the court order when Thomas Bach the president placed the Arkansas National Guard under federal control and sent in the 101st Airborne Division they have scored it
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and protected nine black students entry to Little Rock Central High School an all-white public school for the first time since the Reconstruction era Martin Luther King jr. wrote to Eisenhower to thank him for his actions writing the overwhelming majority of southerners Negro and white stand firmly behind your resolute action to restore law and order in Little Rock Eisenhower's administration contributed to the McCarthy Slavens care with President Eisenhower issuing his executive order 10450 in 1953 during
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Eisenhower's presidency thousands of lesbian and gay applicants were barred from federal employment and over 5,000 federal employees were fired under suspicions of being homosexual from 1947 to 1961 the number of firings based on sexual orientation were far greater than those for membership in the Communist Party and government officials intentionally campaigned to make homosexual synonymous with communist trader such that LGBT people were treated as a national security threat
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stemming from the belief they were susceptible to blackmail and exploitation topic relations with Congress Eisenhower had a Republican Congress for only his first two years in office in the Senate the Republican majority was by a one-vote margin senator Robert a Taft assisted the president greatly in working with the old guard and was sorely missed when his death in July 1953 left Eisenhower with his successor William Nolan whom Eisenhower disliked this prevented Eisenhower from openly condemning Joseph McCarthy's highly
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criticized methods against communism to facilitate relations with Congress Eisenhower decided to ignore McCarthy's controversies and thereby deprive them of more energy from involvement of the White House this position drew criticism from a number of corners in late 1953 McCarthy declared on national television that the employment of communists within the government was a menace and would be a pivotal issue in the 1954 Senate elections Eisenhower was urged to respond directly and specified the various measures he had taken to purge
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the government of communists among Eisenhower's objectives in not directly confronting McCarthy was to prevent McCarthy from dragging the Atomic Energy Commission AEC into McCarthy's witch-hunt for communists which would interfere with and perhaps delay the AEC's important work on h-bombs the administration had discovered through its own investigations that one of the leading scientists on the aec J robert Oppenheimer had urged that the h-bomb work be delayed Eisenhower removed him from the agency and revoked his security clearance though he knew this would
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create fertile ground for McCarthy in May 1955 McCarthy threatened to issue subpoenas to White House personnel Eisenhower was furious and issued an order as follows it is essential to efficient an effective administration that employees of the executive branch be in a position to be completely candid in advising with each other on official matters it is not in the public interest that any of their conversations or communications or any documents or reproductions concerning such advice be
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disclosed this was an unprecedented step by Eisenhower to protect communication beyond the confines of a cabinet meeting and soon became a tradition known as executive privilege Ike's denial of McCarthy's access to his staff reduced McCarthy's hearings to rants about trivial matters and contributed to his ultimate downfall in early 1954 the old guard put forward a constitutional amendment called the Bricker amendment which would curtail international agreements by the chief executive such as the Yalta agreement Eisenhower
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opposed the measure the old guard agreed with Eisenhower on the development and ownership of nuclear reactors by private enterprises which the Democrats opposed the president succeeded in getting legislation creating a system of licensure for nuclear plants by the AEC the Democrats gained a majority in both houses in the 1954 election Eisenhower had to work with the Democratic majority leader lyndon b johnson labour US president in the Senate and Speaker Sam Rayburn in the house both from Texas Joe
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Martin the Republican speaker from 1947 to 1949 and again from 1953 to 1955 wrote that Eisenhower never surrounded himself with assistants who could solve political problems with professional skill there were exceptions Leonard W Hall for example who is chairman of the Republican National Committee tried to open the administration's eyes to the political facts of life with occasional success however these exceptions were not enough to write the balance speaker Martin concluded that Eisenhower worked
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too much through subordinates in dealing with Congress with results often the reverse of what he has desired because members of Congress resent having some young fellow who was picked up by the White House without ever having been elected to office himself coming around and telling them the chief wants this the administration never made use of many Republicans of consequence whose services in one form or another would have been available for the asking topic Judicial Appointments you topic Supreme Court
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Eisenhower appointed the following justices to the Supreme Court of the United States earl warren 1953 Chief Justice John Marshall Harlan - 1954 William J Brennan 1956 Charles Evans Whitaker 1957 Potter Stewart 1958 Whitaker was unsuited for the role and soon retired Stewart and Harlan were conservative Republicans while Brennan was a Democrat who became a leading
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voice for liberalism in selecting a chief justice Eisenhower looked for an experienced jurist who could appeal to liberals in the party as well as law and order conservatives noting privately that Warren represents the kind of political economic and social thinking that I believe we need on the Supreme Court he has a national name for integrity uprightness and courage that again I believe we need on the court in the next few years Warren led the court in a series of liberal decisions that
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revolutionized the role of the court topic states admitted to the Union Alaska January 3rd 1959 49th state Hawaii August 21st 1959 50th state topic health issues Eisenhower began chained smoking cigarettes at West Point often three or four packs a day he joked that he gave himself an order to stop cold turkey in 1949 but Evan Thomas says the true story was more complex at first he removed
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cigarettes and ashtrays but that did not work he told a friend I decided to make a game of the whole business and tried to achieve a feeling of some superiority so I stuffed cigarettes in every pocket put them around my office on the desk and made it a practice to offer a cigarette to anyone who came in while mentally reminding myself as I sat down I do not have to do what that poor fellow is doing he was the first president to release information about
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his health and medical records while in office but people around him deliberately misled the public about his health on September 24 1955 while vacationing in Colorado he had a serious heart attack dr. Howard Schneider his personal physician misdiagnosed the symptoms as indigestion and failed to call in the help that was urgently needed Schneider later falsified his own records to cover his blunder and to protect Eisenhower's need to portray he was healthy enough to do his job the heart attack required six weeks
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hospitalization during which time Mixon Dulles and Sherman Adams assumed administrative duties and provided communication with the president he was treated by dr. Paul Dudley white a cardiologist with a national reputation who regularly informed the press of the president's progress instead of eliminating him as a candidate for a second term as president his physician recommended a second term as essential to his recovery as a consequence of his heart attack Eisenhower developed a left ventricular aneurysm which was in turn the cause of
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a mild stroke on November 25th 1957 this incident occurred during a cabinet meeting when Eisenhower suddenly found himself unable to speak or move his right hand the stroke had caused an aphasia the president also suffered from Crohn's disease chronic inflammatory condition of the intestine which necessitated surgery for a bowel obstruction On June 9th 1956 to treat the intestinal block surgeons bypassed about ten inches of his small intestine his scheduled meeting with Indian Prime
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Minister Jawaharlal Nehru was postponed so he could recover at his farm he was still recovering from this operation during the Suez Crisis Eisenhower's health issues forced him to give up smoking and make some changes to his dietary habits but he still indulged in alcohol during a visit to England he complained of dizziness and had to have his blood pressure checked on August 29 1959 however before dinner at Chequers on the next day his doctor General Howard Schneider recalled Eisenhower drank several gin and tonics and one or
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two gins on the rocks three or four wines with the dinner the last three years of Eisenhower's second term in office were ones of relatively good health eventually after leaving the White House he suffered several additional and ultimately crippling heart attacks a severe heart attack in August 1965 largely ended his participation in public affairs in August 1966 he began to show symptoms of cholecystitis for which he underwent surgery on December 12th 1966 when his
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gallbladder was removed containing 16 gall stones after Eisenhower's death in 1969 see below an autopsy unexpectedly revealed in adrenal pheochromocytoma a benign adrenaline secreting tumor that may have made the president more vulnerable to heart disease Eisenhower suffered seven heart attacks from 1955 until his death topic end of presidency the 22nd amendment to the US Constitution was ratified in 1951 and it set term limits to the presidency of two
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terms Truman as the incumbent was not covered Eisenhower became the first u.s. president constitutionally prevented from running for re-election to a third term Eisenhower was also the first outgoing president to come under the protection of the former presidents act to living former presidents Herbert Hoover and harry s truman left office before the act was passed under the ACT eisenhower was entitled to receive a lifetime pension state provided staff and a Secret Service detail in the 1960 election to choose his successor
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Eisenhower endorsed Nixon over Democrat John F Kennedy he told friends I will do almost anything to avoid turning my chair and country over to Kennedy he actively campaigned for Nixon in the final days although he may have done Nixon some harm when asked by reporters at the end of a televised press conference to list one of Nixon's policy ideas he had adopted Eisenhower joked if you give me a week I might think of one I don't remember Kennedy's campaign used the quote in one of its campaign
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commercials Nixon narrowly lost to Kennedy Eisenhower who is the oldest president in history at that time then seventy was succeeded by the youngest elected president as Kennedy was 43 it was originally intended for President Eisenhower to have a more active role in the campaign as he wanted to respond to attacks Kennedy made on his administration however first lady Mamie Eisenhower expressed concern to second lady Pat Nixon about the strain campaigning would put on his heart and wanted the President to back out of it without letting him know of her intervention vice-president Nixon
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himself also received concern from White House physician Major General Howard Schneider who informed him that he could not approve a heavy campaign schedule for the President and his health had been exacerbated by Kennedy's attacks Nixon then convinced Eisenhower not to go ahead with the expanded campaign schedule and limit himself to the original schedule Nixon reflected that if Eisenhower had carried out his expanded campaign schedule he might have had a decisive impact on the outcome of the election especially in states that Kennedy won with razor thin
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it was years later before Mamie told Dwight why Nixon changed his mind on Dwight's campaigning on January 17 1961 Eisenhower gave his final televised address to the nation from The Oval Office in his farewell speech Eisenhower raised the issue of the Cold War and role of the US Armed Forces he described the Cold War we face a hostile ideology global in scope atheistic in character ruthless in purpose and insidious in method
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and warned about what he saw his in justified government spending proposals and continued with a warning that we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence whether sought or unsought by the military-industrial complex he elaborated we recognize the imperative need for this development the potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing
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of the huge industrial and military machinery of Defense with our peaceful methods and goals so that security and liberty may prosper together because of legal issues related to holding a military rank while in a civilian office Eisenhower had resigned his permanent commission as general of the army before entering the office of President of the United States upon completion of his presidential term his commission was reactivated by Congress and Eisenhower again was commissioned a five-star general in the United States Army
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topic post-presidency death and funeral following the presidency Eisenhower moved to the place where he and Mamie had spent much of their post-war time the home was a working farm adjacent to the battlefield at Gettysburg Pennsylvania 70 miles from his ancestral home in Elizabeth Ville Duffin County Pennsylvania they also maintained a retirement home in Palm Desert California in 1967 the Eisenhower's donated the Gettysburg farm to the National Park Service after leaving
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office Eisenhower did not completely retreat from political life he flew to San Antonio where he had been stationed years earlier to support John W good the unsuccessful Republican candidate against the Democrat Henry B Gonzales for Texas 20th congressional district seat he addressed the 1964 Republican National Convention in San Francisco and appeared with Party nominee Barry Goldwater in a campaign commercial from his Gettysburg retreat that endorsement came somewhat reluctantly because Goldwater had in the late 1950s
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criticized Eisenhower's administration as a dime-store New Deal On January 20th 1969 the day Nixon was inaugurated as president eisenhower issued a statement praising his former vice president and calling it a day for rejoicing on the morning of March 28 1969 Eisenhower died in Washington DC of congestive heart failure at Walter Reed Army Medical Center he was 78 years old the following day his body was moved to the Washington National Cathedral
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Bethlehem chapel where he lay in repose for 28 hours on March 30th his body was brought by caisson to the United States Capitol where he lay in state in the Capitol Rotunda on March 31st Eisenhower's body was returned to the National Cathedral where he was given an Episcopal Church funeral service that evening Eisenhower's body was placed onto a special train for its journey from the nation's capital to Abilene Kansas this was the last time in the 20th century that a funeral train has been used as part of funeral proceedings
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for an American president this will happen again in 2018 for George HW Bush where a funeral train will be used as part of his funeral proceedings his body arrived on April 2nd and was interred that day in a small chapel on the grounds of the Eisenhower Presidential Library the president's body was buried as a General of the army the family used an $80 standard soldier's casket and dressed his body in his famous short green jacket the medals worn worked the army Distinguished Service Medal with
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three oak leaf clusters the Navy Distinguished Service Medal and the Legion of Merit Eisenhower is buried alongside his son Dowd who died at age three in 1921 his wife Mamie was buried next to him after her death a decade later in 1979 President Richard Nixon eulogized Eisenhower saying some men are considered great because they lead great armies or they lead powerful nations for eight years now Dwight Eisenhower has neither commanded an army nor led a nation and yet he remained through his
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final days the world's most admired and respected man truly the first citizen of the world topic legacy in memory Eisenhower's reputation declined in the immediate years after he left office during his presidency he was widely seen by critics as an inactive uninspiring golf playing president this was in stark contrast to his vigorous young successor John F Kennedy who is 26 years his junior despite his unprecedented use of army troops to enforce a federal disagree Gatien order at Central High School in
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Little Rock Eisenhower was criticized for his reluctance to support the civil rights movement to the degree that activists wanted Eisenhower also attracted criticism for his handling of the 1960 u-2 incident and the associated international embarrassment for the Soviet Union's perceived leadership in the nuclear arms race in the space race and for his failure to publicly oppose McCarthyism in particular Eisenhower was criticized for failing to defend George Marshall from attacks by Joseph McCarthy though he privately deplored McCarthy's
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tactics and claims historian John Lewis Gaddis has summarized a more recent turnaround in evaluations by historians historians long ago abandoned the view that Eisenhower's was a failed presidency he did after all and the Korean War without getting into any others he stabilized and did not escalate the Soviet American rivalry he strengthened European alliances while withdrawing support from European colonialism he rescued the Republican Party from isolationism and McCarthyism he maintained prosperity balanced the
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budget promoted technological innovation facilitated if reluctantly the civil rights movement and warned in the most memorable farewell address since Washington's of a military-industrial complex that could endanger the nation's liberties not until Reagan would another president leave office with so strong a sense of having accomplished what he set out to do although conservatism in politics was strong during the 1950s an Eisenhower generally espoused conservative sentiments his administration concerned itself mostly with foreign affairs an
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area in which the career military President had more knowledge and pursued a hands-off domestic policy Eisenhower looked to moderation and cooperation as a means of governance although he sought to slow or contain the New Deal and other federal programs he did not attempt to repeal them outright in doing so Eisenhower was popular among the liberal wing of the Republican Party conservative critics of his administration found that he did not do enough to advance the goals of the right according to Hans Morgenthau Eisenhower's victories were but
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accidents without consequence in the history of the Republican Party since the 19th century many if not all presidents were assisted by a central figure or gatekeeper sometimes described as the president's private secretary sometimes with no official title at all Eisenhower formalized this role introducing the office of White House chief of staff an idea he borrowed from the United States Army every president after Lyndon Johnson has also appointed staff to this position initially Gerald
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Ford and Jimmy Carter tried to operate without a chief of staff but each eventually appointed one as President Eisenhower also initiated the up or out policy that still prevails in the u.s. military officers who are passed over for promotion twice are then usually honorably but quickly discharged in order to make way for younger and more able officers as an army officer Eisenhower had been stuck at the rank of major for 16 years in the interwar period on December 20th 1944 Eisenhower was
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appointed to the rank of general of the army placing him in the company of George Marshall Henry Papp Arnold and Douglas MacArthur the only four men to achieve the rank in World War two along with Omar Bradley they were the only five men to achieve the rank since the August 5th 1888 death of Philip Sheridan and the only five men to hold the rank as a five-star general the rank was created by an act of Congress on a temporary basis when public law 78 to 482 was passed on December 14 1944 as a
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temporary rank subject to reversion to permanent rank six months after the end of the war the temporary rank was then declared permanent on March 23rd 1946 by public law 333 of the 79th Congress which also awarded full pay and allowances in the grade to those on the retired list it was created to give the most senior American commanders parity of rank with their British counterparts holding the ranks of Field Marshal and Admiral of the fleet this second general of the army rank is not the same as the
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post-civil war era version because of its purpose and five stars Eisenhower founded people-to-people international in 1956 based on his belief that citizen interaction would promote cultural interaction and world peace the program includes a student ambassador component which sends American youth on educational trips to other countries during his second term as president Eisenhower distinctively preserved his presidential gratitude by awarding individuals a special memento this memento was a series of specially
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designed US Mint presidential appreciation medals Eisenhower presented the medal as an expression of his appreciation in the medal as a keepsake reminder for the recipient the development of the appreciation medals was initiated by the White House and executed by the United States Mint through the Philadelphia Mint the medals were struck from September 1958 through October 1960 a total of twenty designs are catalogued with a total mintage of nine thousand 858 each of the designs
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incorporates the text with appreciation or with personal and official gratitude companied with Eisenhower's initials DD e or facsimile signature the design also incorporates location date and more significant event prior to the end of his second term as president 1451 medals were turned into the Bureau of the mint and destroyed the Eisenhower appreciation medals are part of the presidential medal of appreciation award medal series
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topic tributes and memorials the interstate highway system is officially known as the Dwight D Eisenhower national system of interstate and defense highways in his honor it was inspired in part by Eisenhower's own army experiences in World War two where he recognized the advantages of the Autobahn system in Germany commemorative signs reading Eisenhower interstate system and bearing Eisenhower's permanent five-star rank insignia were introduced in 1993 and now are displayed
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throughout the interstate system several highways are also named for him including the Eisenhower Expressway interstate 299 oh the Eisenhower Tunnel on Interstate 70 west of Denver an interstate 80 in California Dwight D Eisenhower school for national security and resource strategy as a senior War College of the Department of Defense's National Defense University in Washington DC Eisenhower graduated from this school when it was previously known as the army industrial College the school's building
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on Fort Leslie Jay McNair when it was known as the industrial College of the Armed Forces was dedicated as Eisenhower Hall in 1960 Eisenhower was honored on to us $1 coin minted from 1971 to 1978 his centenary was honored on a commemorative dollar coin issued in 1990 in 1969 for major record companies ABC records MGM records Buddha records and Caedmon audio released tribute albums in
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Eisenhower's honor in 1999 the United States Congress created the Dwight D Eisenhower memorial Commission to create an enduring National Memorial in Washington DC in 2009 the Commission chose the architect Frank Gehry to design the memorial the memorial will stand on a four acre site near the National Mall on Maryland Avenue SW across the street from the National Air and Space Museum Topic awards and decorations you topic other honors an apartment at the top of the Cozine
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castle in Scotland was given to general of the army Dwight D Eisenhower in recognition of his role as supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during the Second World War the general first visited Cozine castle in 1946 and stayed there four times including once while President of the United States an Eisenhower exhibition occupies one of the rooms with mementos of his lifetime in June 1945 Eisenhower received an honorary freedom of the City of London in January 1946 the Metropolitan Museum
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of Art named Eisenhower an honorary fellow for life in recognition of his efforts to recover art looted by the Nazis during World War two in 1965 Eisenhower received an honorary Doctorate from Grinnell College in Grinnell Iowa in 1966 Eisenhower was the second person awarded Civitan internationals world Citizenship Award in May 1967 Eisenhower was made an honorary brother of Epsilon ADA chapter of tau epsilon Phi fraternity in
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December 1999 he was listed on galip's list of most widely admired people of the 20th century in 2009 he was named to the World Golf Hall of Fame in the Lifetime Achievement category for his contributions to the sport topic promotions note Eisenhower relinquished his active duty status when he became president on January 20th 1953 he was returned to active duty when he left office eight years later topic family tree
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you topic see also and I don't care what it is phrased by Eisenhower 1952 on religion Atoms for Peace a speech to the UN General Assembly in December 1953 Committee on scientists and engineers Eisenhower baseball controversy Eisenhower dollar Eisenhower method for time management Eisenhower National Historic Site Eisenhower on US postage stamps
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Eisenhower Presidential Center people-to-people Student Ambassador Program kay summersby hike countdown to d-day a 2004 American television film about the decisions Eisenhower made a Supreme Commander that led to the successful d-day invasion of World War two pressure a 2014 British play on Eisenhower's part in the meteorological decisions leading up to d-day he was played in the premiere production by Malcolm Sinclair general history of the
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United States 1945 to 1964 list of presidents of the United States sortable by previous experience historical rankings of United States presidents

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